Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Weather and Climate’ for class 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Weather and Climate’ especially written for school students.
Essay on Weather and Climate
- Essay on the Meaning of Weather and Climate
- Essay on the Elements of Weather and Climate
- Essay on the Importance of Weather and Climate
- Essay on Difference between Weather and Climate
- Essay on Factors Controlling Weather and Climate
- Essay on Variation in Climate and Weather
Essay # 1. Meaning of Weather and Climate:
Weather is the day-to-day state of atmosphere and pertains to short term changes in conditions of heat, moisture and air movement. Weather results from processes that attempt to equalise the differences in the distribution of net radiant energy from sun. In other words, the instantaneous state of atmosphere can be called as weather. It is usually expressed as fine, fair, foggy, cloudy, rainy, sunny or windy weather.
The process of exchange of heat and moisture between earth and atmosphere over a long period of time (month, season, and year) related to large areas (zone, state, country, continent) results in conditions what we call climate.
It is aggregate of atmospheric conditions involving heat, moisture and air movement. In other words, the totality of weather over a large area is known as climate. It is expressed as marine, continental, arid, semiarid, humid or desert climate.
Essay # 2. Elements of Weather and Climate:
Weather refers to the sum total of the atmospheric conditions in terms of temperature, pressure, wind, moisture, cloudiness, precipitation and visibility of a particular place at any given time. In fact, weather denotes short-term variations of atmospheric conditions and it is highly variable.
On the other hand, climate is defined as aggregate weather conditions of any region in long-term perspective. According to Trewartha ‘climate represents a composite of day to day weather conditions, and of the atmospheric elements, within a specified area over a long period of time.’ According to Critchfield ‘climate is more than a statistical average; it is the aggregate of atmospheric conditions involving heat, moisture, and air movement. Extremes must always be considered in any climatic description in addition to means, trends, and probabilities.’
According to Koeppen and De Long ‘climate is a summary, a composite of weather conditions over a long period of time; truly portrayed, it includes details of variations-extremes, frequencies, sequences-of the weather elements which occur from year to year, particularly in temperature and precipitation. Climate is the aggregate of the weather.’
G.F. Taylor has maintained that ‘climate is the integration of weather, and weather is the differentiation of climate. The distinction between weather and climate is, therefore, mainly one of time.’ Temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, precipitation, cloudiness etc. are elements of weather and climate.
Essay # 3. Importance of Weather and Climate:
Weather and climate are the most pervasive factors of crop environment.
Knowledge of agrometeorology is useful in several aspects of practical agriculture as indicated below:
1. It has practical utility in timing of agricultural operations so as to make the best use of favourable weather conditions and make adjustments for adverse weather.
2. The dangers of crop production due to pest and disease incidence, occurrence of prolonged drought, soil erosion, frost and weather hazards can be minimised.
3. Weather support also provides guidelines for long range or seasonal planning of crops and cultivars most suited to anticipated climatic conditions.
4. Agrometeorological information can be used in land use planning, risk analysis of climatic hazards, production and harvest forecasts and linking similar crop environments for crop adaptability and productivity.
Weather is a phase of climate representing atmospheric condition at a given place and at a given instant of time as against climate, representing atmospheric condition for longer period of time over a larger area.
Components of weather and climate or simply weather elements include:
b. Solar radiation.
The influence of weather and climate on crop growth and development and final yield is complicated by complexity of interactions associated with crops and the environment during the crop season.
The influence of weather and climate on crop productivity can be summarised as indicated below:
Weather parameters with favourable influence:
1. Weather and climate are the important factors to determining the success or failure of agriculture.
2. All the agricultural operations from sowing to harvest of crops depend on the mercy of weather.
3. Climate determines suitability of a crop to a particular region while weather plays a major role in the productivity of a crop in the region.
4. The excess or shortage of elements of weather and climate exerts a negative influence on crop growth, development and final yield.
5. The effect of weather and climate is complex as elements of climate operate simultaneously in nature.
6. Due to complexity of environment in which a crop is grown, it is difficult to assign an, optimum value of a climatic element for maximum crop productivity.
Weather parameters with negative influence:
1. Excessive and untimely rains.
2. Scanty rains with prolonged dry spells.
3. Heat and cold waves.
4. Dust-storms, thunderstorms and hailstorms.
5. High winds.
Weather variables having both positive and negative effects on crop productivity:
1. Solar radiation (UV, light and infrared).
2. Temperature (air and soil).
Essay # 4. Difference between Weather and Climate:
The differences between weather and climate are:
1. Pertains to the day-to-day state of the atmosphere at a particular place.
2. Refers to specific instant of time and place.
3. It is always changing and differs from time to time.
1. Pertains to the atmosphere over a given region,
2. Refers to a large region and for a long period of time.
3. It is more or less stable and differs from region to region.
Essay # 5. Factors Controlling Weather and Climate:
Geographical factors influencing weather and climate are referred to as climatic controls.
c. Land and water bodies.
The distance from the equator (latitude), either from south or north, largely creates variation in climate. Based on latitude, the climate has been classified as tropical, subtropical, temperate and polar climates. The height from mean sea level (altitude/elevation) adds to variation in climate.
Temperature and pressure decreases with increasing height from mean sea level. Based on altitude, the climate is described as mountainous and valley/plateau climates. Nearness to large bodies of water also causes variation in climate. The climates are referred to as continental and maritime.
Instruments for Measuring Weather Parameters:
Different instruments are used for measuring weather parameters in observatories and laboratories. Depending on the level of accuracy required and the cost, instruments are used for recording the weather data.
Irrespective of whether it is an observatory or a lab. Table 2.1 gives a list or of instruments and weather parameter measured:
Essay # 6. Variation in Climate and Weather:
Climatic parameters are determined, primarily, by geographic factors such as:
3. Distance from large water bodies.
4. Ocean currents.
5. Intensity of wind.
All the above climatic parameters influence the wind. Three geographic factors—altitude, latitude and longitude are important for crop production. These are embodied in Hopkin Bioclimatic Law. It states that crop production activities (planting to harvest) and specific morphological developments are delayed by 4 days for each 1° latitude, 5° longitude and 12 m (40 ft) of altitude as one move northward and upward, respectively.
Intensity, velocity and direction of wind vary with three geographic factors leading to variation in climate and weather.
Geographic surface features such as large bodies of water and mountain ranges modify the wind characteristics and hence the meteorological parameters. A mountain range in the path of prevailing wind creates moist conditions on the windward side and dry conditions on the leeward side. Air cools adiabatically to the dew point as it rises up the mountains.
The air that is forced upward by the mountain range loses its moisture and becomes a dry mass when it goes over the top. This is called the orographic effect (relief effect), which is different from the usual rainfall without mountains. Topography influences weather and microclimate through variation in temperature and wind.
Water is normally warmer than the surrounding land. When wind blows over a large body of water, it picks up moisture, thus creating a more moderate leeward condition. The leeward side of the body of water is subjected to less temperature fluctuations (relatively stable weather) compared to windward side. Windward side is suitable for drought tolerant crops and leeward side to relatively drought sensitive crops. North facing and south facing slopes may differ in climate and natural vegetation. These sites differ in crops that can be grown.
World climate is not static but is subjected to changes caused by factors such as systematic changes in solar activity, sea level, atmospheric carbon dioxide and continental drift. Continental drift gradually changes the latitudinal position of the land masses and the sea level. Volcanic explosions discharge large amounts of dust and gases into the atmosphere. This may cause a decline in temperature (reverse of greenhouse effect).
Accumulation of greenhouse gases is responsible for global warming (gradual increasing trend in global average temperature largely due to greenhouse effect). In spite of technological advances in modern crop production, crop production is still subject to the vagaries of the weather that are manifested in three main ways— moisture stress, temperature stress and natural disasters.