Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Climate Change in India’ for class 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Climate Change in India’ especially written for school and college students.
Essay on Climate Change in India
- Essay on the Introduction to Climate Change
- Essay on the Causes of Climate Change
- Essay on the Consequences of Climate Change
- Essay on Climate Change in Indian Context
- Essay on the Adaptive Strategies for Mitigating Climate Change
- Essay on India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change
Essay # 1. Introduction to Climate Change:
Climate like any other physical phenomenon is not static but rather a fairly dynamic kind of thing. In greater or lesser degree it is ever changing.
Climate change is the long-term variability associated with the earth ocean climate system.
In fact the growth and decline of past human civilizations and other species of plants and animals as well as the formulation of future public policy regarding ail elements of human life depend on the climate and its change.
Weather, according to Peterman and Foy, is atmospheric activity over a short period, like a cold winter snap or a hot spell. It comprises the atmospheric condition at a particular place and time resulting in heat or cold, sunshine, humidity, cloud cover, wind and rain.
Climate is the long-term average of a region’s weather events. It is defined as the general or average weather condition of a certain region, including temperature, rain fall and wind. Thus, the climate is long-term statistical expression of short term weather. Over the billions of years of earth’s existence, it has changed many times in response to natural causes like sun spots, ice age glaciations, etc.
Reconstruction of Past Climates:
It is done through Indirect Evidences.
These evidences are based on the findings of geology, geomorphology, botany, zoology, anthropology, glaciology, archaeology, geophysics, meteorology, oceanography, historical records and a host of other related disciplines.
Instrumental records of climatic elements are available only for the last hundred years or so.
Fossilized remains of animal and plant life help to determine the duration and areal extent of climatic conditions obtained in distant geologic past.
E.g., fossilized pollen unearthed from sedimentary rocks in Massachusetts suggests that the climatic conditions there must have been similar to those in the extreme north Canada at present.
Study of ocean floor deposits and analysis of oxygen isotopes help in reconstruction of temperatures as they fluctuated in geologic past.
Oxygen isotope analysis determines the periods of glacial activity by measuring the ratio between two isotopes of oxygen, O16 (most common) and O18 (heavier).
Heavier precipitation leaves a greater concentration of the heavier isotope. It is so because the lighter isotope evaporates more readily from the sea-surface.
Thus, the greater concentration of the heavier isotope in sea water indicates extensive glacial activity. Conversely, a marked drop in the concentration of O18 is suggestive of warmer inter-glacial period.
The analysis of the annual growth of tree rings reveals the history of local climate.
The study of paleosols (buried soils) helps in exploring the past conditions of local climate.
The study of historical records gives valuable information about draughts, floods, severe storms and other climatic extremes.
Records of large-scale migration of peoples from one region to another and the nature of crops produced also give invaluable clues to past climatic conditions.
Variation in the emission of solar radiation determines the concentration of atmospheric C-14.
The major interval of high atmospheric C-14 activity coincides with periods of neo- glacial expansion while the intervals of relatively low C-14 activity coincide with intervals of glacier contraction.
Before describing the Climate change it must be pointed out that the earth’s geological history is divided into four main periods- Pre-Cambrian (Archaeozoic and Proterzoic) Paleozoic; Mesozoic; and Cenozoic (Tertiary and Quaternary).
At intervals of tens of millions of years, geological history has been punctuated by five or six glacial episodes, the oldest known being about 2500 million years ago. The last three occurred at the beginning of the Cambrian (550 million year ago); during the late carboniferous and Permian period (250 my) and in Pleistocene or Quaternary Ice Age (the last 2 my).
During the glacial periods the precipitation is estimated to be greater than during the inter-glacial periods in tropical and subtropical regions. The pluvial periods were separated by inter-pluvial periods when most of the lakes dried up.
Essay # 2. Causes of Climate Change:
The climate change can be associated to Astronomical causes and geographical causes Astronomical Causes are: 1. Extraterrestrial Impact 2. Solar Factors.
(i) Extraterrestrial Impact:
Extraterrestrial impact is the passage of earth through an interstellar dust.
One possible cause of variability in receipt of insolation over the Earth’s surface is the presence of clouds of fine interstellar matter (nebulae) through which the earth might pass from time to time or which might interpose between the Sun and the Earth.
In encircling the Galaxy, the Earth passes through one of the rotating spiral arms of the Galaxy about once every 300 million years. Passage through this dust lane might cause climatic effects as interstellar dust affects the radiative transmittance of interplanetary space.
The earth path around the Galaxy is elliptical and its passage nearest to the Galaxy’s centre every 270 to 400 million years might give rise to cyclic changes in climate.
(ii) Solar Factors:
a. Earth Elliptical Orbit:
The effect of solar distance is of little significance in current seasonal temperature fluctuations but it plays an important role in producing large-scale climatic changes.
The earth revolves around the sun in an elliptical orbit, and at the same time rotates itself every 24 hours on an axis inclined at 23½° to the plane of the orbit.
At present, winter occurs in the northern hemisphere when the Earth is farthest away from the sun (aphelion) and the southern summer when it is nearest (perihelion). Over long periods of time the shape of the elliptical orbit changes and the angle of tilt can vary from 21 ½° to 24 ½0.
The difference in distance is not more than 3% but this differences means that there is a variation of 6% of solar radiation received by the earth.
b. Earths Orbital/ Eccentricity Factor:
The earth’s orbit undergoes a change of shape during a cycle of 90,000 and 100,000 years. Sometimes the orbit forms a longer ellipse, and then it returns to a more circular shape.
At the time of the greater eccentricity of the earth’s orbit, the amount of solar radiation received on the earth’s surface at perihelion may be 20 to 30 % greater than at aphelion.
c. Earth’s Axial Inclination/ Obliquity:
The angle between the earth’s orbital plane and its equatorial plane can vary displacing the Tropics and Polar Circles. Presently the earth’s axis is inclined by 23.5°.
This angle undergoes a change and the inclination of the axis varies from 22.1° to 24.5° during a cycle of about 41,000 years.
Smaller changes in the inclination of the angle bring about smaller temperature differences between winter and summer. If the temperature difference between the two seasons is reduced, the ice sheets can grow in thickness and extent.
Warmer winters cause more snowfall as higher temperatures mean increased capacity of air to hold moisture. On the other hand, cooler summer temperatures do not allow much snow to melt. This would lead to the growth of ice sheets.
d. Wobbling of Earth’s Axis/ Precision:
Like a spinning top, the earth rotating on its axis wobbles. This gyroscopic motion is due to the tidal forces exerted by the Sun and the Moon on the solid Earth, which has the shape of an oblate spheroid rather than a sphere.
At present, the axis of the earth points towards the North Star, but due to wobbling, the axis will be pointing towards the Vegas star that will then be called the North Star. The period of precession is roughly about 26,000 years and Polaris will once again be the North Star.
As a result of the tilt of the axis towards Vega in about 12,000 years, the northern hemisphere will experience winter when the sun is farthest from the earth (aphelion) and summer will occur when the earth is nearest to the sun (perihelion) making summers warmer and winters colder than present.
The effects of Eccentricity, Axial tilt and Precision have been combined in the Milankovitch curve to plot the results of these changes over long periods of time.
e. The Sunspot Factor:
Sunspots are the most conspicuous features on the solar surface that appear as dark spots. They are simply the huge magnetic storms that occur on the sun’s surface. The sunspots are a sign of increased solar activity and the number of sunspots increases and decreases in a cyclic manner.
Attempts have been made to link the well-known sunspot cycle of 11 years with meteorological events.
Changes in the upper atmosphere may be crucial. Sunspot maxima correspond generally to periods of high solar activity. This activity includes increased solar wind and phenomena like auroras and magnetic storms that are correlated with the solar winds, increased flares and prominences, and increased non-thermal radio and X- ray emissions. Conversely, near sunspot minima the Sun is much quieter with respect to these phenomena.
These astronomical oscillations have been called ‘the pacemakers of ice ages’, they may not cause ice ages, but they do control the succession of glacial and interglacial stages within them.
Essay # 3. Consequences of Climate Change in India:
The consequences of global warming are complex and affect the characteristics of temperature, precipitation, soil moisture, and air-masses both at the regional and global level.
(i) Rising Global Temperatures:
The Increased Temperature World Over has Devastating Effect on Ecology as well as Economy.
The 20th Century was the warmest century of the millennium and the year 1998 was the warmest year of the 20th Century. Seven out of ten warmest years were recorded in the last decade of the 20th Century.
In Antarctica the ice sheets are breaking up, Icebergs and ice shelves of the size of more than 11,000 sq. km (300 km long X 37 km wide) have been reported from the Antarctica. The population of Adele Penguins on Antarctica declined by 40 per cent. The edge of West Antarctic ice-sheet is shrinking at the rate of about 125 meters each year.
The Garhwal Himalayan (Uttarakhand, India) glaciers are rapidly retreating at the rate of about 10 meters per year.
The average elevation of glaciers in the Southern Alps of New Zealand moved upward about 100 meters in the 20th century.
The glaciation in the Tien Shan Mountains of China, Caucasus Mountains of Georgia and Russia shrank nearly 25 % in the past 50 years.
The Bering Glacier in Alaska is retreating, and the area of Bering Sea shrunk by about 5 % in the last 50 years.
The largest glacier of Mount Kenya almost completely melted away in the 20th century.
Glaciers of Alps Mountains of Europe shrank by about 50 per cent in the last century.
The tree line in mountain ranges is moving upward. Vegetation (mosses and lichen) appearance is observed on the slopes of the mountains of Antarctica.
(ii) Rise in Sea Level:
Significant changes are taking place in the sea level. The measurements of sea level exhibit cyclical changes.
The main cause of sea level rise is the melting of ice-sheets and glaciers.
It is observed that about 18 thousand years before present, the sea level was about 82 meters below the present sea level. Since then, it is continuously rising. The more significant rise in the sea level occurred about 6000 years before present.
The sea level rise gradually inundates coastal areas that affect the occurrence and frequency of tropical cyclones, patterns of precipitation, causing droughts and floods and ultimately affecting the vegetation, animals, Soil humidity and human society.
Global warming has raised the temperatures on the planet. When temperatures rise, water in the oceans also heats up and causes thermal expansion. The water occupies more space and spills over onto the coastal regions causing flooding and submerging.
Thermal expansion of oceans and seas was accelerated during the Industrial Revolution period.
Countries like Maldives and greater parts of Netherlands, etc. may submerge under water.
(iii) Ocean Acidification:
Oceans function as the reservoir for CO2 and absorb about 30% of the CO2 produced by the human beings and buffer the climate change problem.
The level of CO2 is increasing at an alarming level because of anthropogenic activities and is exceeding the level of buffering capacity of oceans and causing its acidification.
Ocean acidification is said to a trickle down impact of climate change. It is expected to have a deeper impact on ocean biodiversity and marine life.
Acidification of oceans occurs due to the uptake of CO2 by the ocean waters. The water bodies on the Earth’s surface including rivers, lakes and oceans absorb around 30-40% of the C02 released into the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities.
Some types of phytoplankton and sea grass are likely to benefit from ocean acidification. At the same time, alien algal growth is likely to flourish disrupting coastal habitats.
b. Coral Reefs:
Bleaching of coral reef is expected to increase due to ocean acidification. The corals are dying at an unprecedented rate. The epidemics in the colonies of corals in the form of bleaching are attributed to the rise in temperature of the oceans.
Acidified ocean water changes the acoustics of ocean water. This is likely to impact the creatures that depend on echolocation like dolphins, porpoises, killer whales and sperm whales.
(iv) Ecosystems and Biodiversity:
Climate change has the potential to cause immense biodiversity loss, affecting both individual species and their ecosystems hat support economic growth and human well-being.
The projected extinctions of flora and fauna in the future will be human driven i.e. due to adverse impact of human activities
National parks, sanctuaries and biosphere reserves may be altered.
Change in the intensity and patterns of precipitation altering natural vegetation, cropping patterns, crop combination, agricultural productivity and soil belts.
Climatic change will affect the nutritious value of the food crops. The rising carbon dioxide emissions will lead to deficiencies in iron and zinc.
Agricultural fields in the deltaic regions may submerge. This would affect the food supply and international trade of grains.
Many tropical diseases (malaria, cholera, yellow-fever, dengue-fever, plague and hantavirus) are spreading towards the higher latitudes and the Polar Regions.
The land-based animals will have to adapt to changing patterns of climatic belts.
(v) Impact of Atmosphere and Wind Belts:
Change in pressure belts and atmospheric circulation. The Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) may move northward in the Northern Hemisphere.
Change in the direction of permanent and periodic winds.
Change in the directions of warm and cold-water currents.
Increase in the frequency of tropical and temperate cyclones, cloud cover, tornadoes and storms.
The desertification results in the expansion of deserts.
Extreme events such as heat waves, cold waves, droughts, tornadoes and western disturbances are becoming more frequent.
The frequency of El Nino and La-Nina are increasing.
Snowfall was recorded in the desert of Dubai and Abu-Dhabi (Ras-al-Khaima) for the first time in the recorded history in January/ February, 2005.
Cloudbursts and flesh floods like that of the 16th June, 2013 in Uttarakhand are becoming more frequent.
Untimely heavy snowfall in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand(Badrinath valley) and Nepal.
(vi) Impact on Global Trade:
Change in the international trade pacts and geo-politics of world owing to change in patterns of agriculture, its production and productivity.
Essay # 4. Climate Change in Indian Context:
The scientists of the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), New Delhi found that temperature would increase by about 5°C in several parts of India, especially in Gujarat (Rann of Kachchh) and Rajasthan, and 3°C to 4°C in Peninsular India by the end of the 21st Century.
In addition to this, the incidence of violent and stormy weather and the frequency of tropical cyclones may it increase by about 50 %.
This may lead to heat waves, more torrential rainfall and more prolonged dry spells in the less rainfall recording areas.
The rising temperature may affect every aspect of ecology, economy and society.
Consequences of climate change in India are discussed below:
I. Hydrological Cycle:
The discharge of water even in the perennial rivers may decrease by about 20 per cent by 2050 resulting in decrease in fresh water availability.
II. Increased Temperature:
With Increased temperatures the rate of evaporation will increase resulting in more of rainfall and mostly in the oceans.
In several areas, rainfall will increase, while in others there will be decrease.
With increasing temperatures affecting the Himalayan glaciers, the proneness to floods in the plains of Indus, Satluj, Ganga and Brahmaputra will increase in the initial years
III. Soil Moisture:
Decrease in soil moisture in the northern plains of India and the consequent increase in saline affected areas would affect the Agricultural production by about 15 per cent.
The un-seasonality of hot and cold spells will not be conducive for good agricultural productivity. Such conditions would have a lasting influence on cropping patterns too.
With lowered productivity and production, India may be forced to depend on importing food grains to feed its teeming millions.
IV. Forest Cover:
It will change in nature and the vegetation belts will shift which will affect the areas of Biosphere Reserves and National parks.
Submergence: Deltas along coast of Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal and islands in front of Sundarban Delta and the Lakshadweep may submerge under water.
Inter-regional and international migration of people in search of jobs and better quality of life will be increased.
Essay # 5. Adaptive Strategies for Mitigating Climate Change:
(i) Carbon Sequestration:
Carbon capture and storage, also known as CCS or carbon sequestration, describes the technologies designed to tackle global warming by capturing CO2 at power stations, industrial sites or even directly from the air and permanently storing is underground.
It is the area that absorbs carbons. Pumping carbon into ‘carbon sinks’ may carry out carbon sequestration
i. Natural Sinks:
Oceans, forests, soil etc.
ii. Artificial Sinks:
These are depleted oil reserves, un-mineable mines, etc.
a. Carbon Sink:
Unlike black and brown carbon that contribute to atmospheric greenhouse gases, green and blue carbon sequestrate the atmosphere greenhouse gases
b. Green Carbon:
Green carbon is carbon removed by photosynthesis and stored in the plants and soil of natural ecosystems and is a vital part of the global carbon cycle.
Afforestation and reforestation are measures that can be taken to enhance biological carbon sequestration.
c. Blue Carbon:
Blue carbon refers to coastal, aquatic and marine carbon sinks held by the indicative vegetation, marine organisms and sediments.
Coastal ecosystems such as tidal marshes, mangroves, and sea grasses remove carbon from the atmosphere and ocean, storing it in plants and depositing it in the sediment below them by natural processes.
The Blue Carbon Initiative
The Blue carbon initiative is the first integrated program with a comprehensive and coordinated global agenda focused on mitigating climate change through the conservation and restoration of coastal marine ecosystems.
(ii) Carbon Credit:
A carbon credit is a tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one ton of carbon or carbon dioxide equivalent (tCO2e).
Earning Carbon Credits:
An organization, which produces one ton less of carbon or carbon dioxide equivalent than the standard level of carbon emission allowed for its outfit or activity, earns a carbon credit.
Carbon offset are credits for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions made at another location, such as wind farms, which create renewable energy and reduce the need for fossil fuel powered energy.
Carbon offsets are quantified and sold in metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e).
(iii) Carbon Tax:
Carbon tax is the potential alternative to the ‘cap and trade’ method currently used by the protocol.
This tax is based on the amount of carbon contained in a fuel such as coal etc.
The aim of this tax is to cause less fossil fuel use and hopefully cause an incentive to use other sources of energy.
(iv) Climate-Smart Agriculture:
While agriculture is the sector most vulnerable to climate change, it is also a major cause, directly accounting for about 14 percent of greenhouse gas emissions (IPCC 2007).
And yet, agriculture can be a part of the solution, helping people to feed themselves and adapt to changing conditions while mitigating climate change.
It is possible for agriculture to actually sequester or absorb carbon into the soil rather than emitting it. This can be done without the trade off with productivity and yields.
This will help in achieving higher yields, more carbon in the soil and greater resilience to droughts and heat.
(v) Green Economy:
The ‘Green economy’ can be considered synonymous to a ‘sustainable’ economy.
Green economy focuses specifically on the fundamental changes that are required to ensure that economic systems are made more sustainable.
Green economy focuses on the ways to overcome the deeply rooted causes of unsustainable economic development.
(vi) The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity:
The economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) was launched by Germany and the European Commission in 2007.
It is an international initiative to highlight the growing cost of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation and to draw together expertise from the fields of science, economics and policy to enable practical actions. It drew attention to the global economic benefits of biodiversity.
(vii) REDD & REDD+:
REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) is the global endeavour to create an incentive for developing countries to protect, better manage and save their forest resources, thus contributing to the global fight against climate change.
REDD+ goes beyond merely checking deforestation and forest degradation, and includes incentives for positive elements of conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks.
Essay # 6. India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change:
Dealing with the challenge of climate change, India acts on several fronts in a focused manner simultaneously.
The National action plan hinges on the development and use of new technologies, and the implementation of the plan would be through appropriate institutional mechanisms suited for effective delivery of objectives of each individual Mission.
The focus will be on promoting understanding of climate change, adaption and mitigation, energy efficiency and natural resource conservation.
(i) National Solar Mission:
The national solar mission is a major initiative of the Government of India and State Governments to promote ecologically sustainable growth while addressing India’s energy security challenge.
To establish India as a global leader in solar energy, by creating the policy conditions for its diffusion across the country as quickly as possible.
(ii) The National Mission for Enhanced Energy Efficiency:
The National Mission for enhanced energy efficiency (NMEEE), which seeks to strengthen the market for energy efficiency by creating conducive regulatory and policy regime.
NMEEE has been envisaged to foster innovative and sustainable business models to the energy efficiency sector.
Promoting the innovative policy and regulatory regimes, financing mechanisms, and business models, which not only create, but also sustain markets for energy efficiency in a transparent manner with clear deliverables to be achieved in a time bound manner.
(iii) National Mission on Sustainable Habitat:
“National Mission on Sustainable Habitat” seeks to promote sustainability of habitats through improvements in energy efficiency in buildings, urban planning, improved management of solid and liquid waste, modal shift towards public transport and conservation through appropriate changes in legal and regulatory framework.
(iv) National Water Mission (NWM):
It is the integrated water resource management for conservation of water, minimization of wastage and equitable distribution.
It’s the framework to increase water use efficiency by 20% through regulatory mechanisms with differential entitlements and pricing, taking the National Water Policy (NWP) into consideration.
Meeting part of urban water needs through recycling.
It is to meet the water requirements of coastal cities through the adoption of new and appropriate technologies such as low-temperature desalination technologies.
Ensure basin-level management strategies to deal with rainfall variability, rainwater harvesting and establishment of equitable and efficient management structures.
Optimize efficiency of existing irrigation systems to rehabilitate run-down systems and to expand irrigation to increase storage capacity.
It is for the promotion of water-neutral and water-positive technologies for recharging of underground water sources and adoption of large-scale irrigation programs.
(v) National Mission for Sustaining the Himalayan Ecosystem:
The most crucial and primary objective of the mission (NMSHE) is to develop a sustainable National capacity to continuously assess the health status of the Himalayan Ecosystem and enable policy bodies in their policy formulation functions and assist states in the Indian Himalayan region with their implementation of actions selected for sustainable development.
(vi) National Mission for a Green India:
Increased forest/ tree cover on 5 million hectares (ha) of forest/ non-forest lands and improved quality of forest cover on another 5 million hectares of non-forest/ forest lands (a total of 10 million ha).
Improved ecosystem services including biodiversity, hydrological services, and carbon sequestration from the 10 million hectares of forest/ non-forest lands mentioned above
Increased forest-based livelihood income of about 3 million households, living in and around the forests
It will enhance the annual C02 sequestration by 50 to 60 million tons in the year 2020.
(vii) National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA):
To devise strategic plans at the agro-climatic zone level so that action plans are contextualized to regional scales in the areas of research and development (R&D), technology and practices, infrastructure and capacity building.
(viii) National Mission on Strategic Knowledge for Climate Change:
NMSKCC Objectives: Formation of knowledge networks among the existing knowledge institutions engaged in research and development relating to climate science and facilitating data sharing and exchange through a suitable policy framework and institutional support.
(ix) National Bio-Energy Mission:
The government is preparing a national bio-energy mission to boost power generation from biomass, a renewable energy source abundantly available in India.
The national mission will aim at improving energy efficiency in traditional biomass consuming industries, seek to develop a bio-energy city project and provide logistics support to biomass processing units. It will also propose a GIS based National Biomass Resource Atlas to map potential biomass regions in the country.
(x) Labeling Programme for Appliances:
An energy labeling programme for appliances was launched in 2006, and comparative star based labeling has been introduced for fluorescent tube lights, air conditioners, refrigerators and distribution transformers.
(xi) Energy Conservation Building Code:
An energy conservation building code (ECBC) was launched in May 2007, which addresses the design of new, large commercial buildings to optimize the buildings’ energy demand based on their location in different climate zones.
Commercial buildings are one of the fastest growing sectors of the Indian economy, reflecting the increasing share of the services sector in the economy.
Buildings are one of the major pollutants that affect urban air quality and contribute to climate change.
Green Building is also known as green construction or sustainable building. It refers to both a structure and the using of process that are environmentally responsible and resources efficient throughout a building’s life cycle.
(xii) Energy Audits of Large Industrial Consumers:
In March 2007 the conduct of energy audits was made mandatory in large energy- consuming units in nine industrial sectors. These units, notified as “designated consumers” are also required to employ “certified energy managers”, and report energy consumption and energy conservation data annually.
(xiii) Mass Transport:
The national urban transport policy emphasizes extensive public transport facilities and non-motorized modes over personal vehicles. The expansion of the Metro Rail Transportation System (MRTS) (Delhi and other cities like Chennai, Bangalore, Jaipur, etc.) and other mass transit systems, such as the Metro Bus project in Bangalore, are steps in its implementation.
The state government of Maharashtra recently announced that it will impose a congestion tax to discourage the use of private cars in cities where it has created “sufficient public transport capacity”.
(xiv) Clear Air Initiatives:
In urban areas, one of the major sources of air pollution is emission from transport vehicles.
Steps taken to reduce such pollution include:
(i) Introduction of compressed natural gas (CNG) in Delhi and other cities
(ii) Retiring old, polluting vehicles
(iii) Strengthening of mass transportation,
Some state governments provide subsidies for purchase and use of electric vehicles. For thermal power plants, the installation of electrostatic precipitators is mandatory. In many cities, polluting industrial units have either been closed or shifted from residential areas.
i. Promotion of Energy Saving Devices:
The Bureau of Energy efficiency has introduced “The Bachat Lamp Yojana”, a program under which households may exchange incandescent lamps for CFLs (compact fluorescent lamps) using clean development mechanisms (CDM) credits to equate purchase price.
Some states have made mandatory the installation of solar water heaters in hospitals, hotels, and large government and commercial buildings. Subsidy is provided for installation of solar water heaters in residential buildings.
ii. Promotion of Biofuels:
The Biodiesel purchase policy mandates biodiesel procurement by the petroleum industry. A mandate on Ethanol blending of gasoline requires 5% blending of ethanol with gasoline.
(xv) Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture:
The ICAR has launched national initiative on climate resilient agriculture (NICRA) during 2010-11 with an outlay of Rs.350 crores for the XI plan.
This initiative will primarily enhance the resilience of Indian Agriculture covering crops, livestock and fisheries.