Here is a compilation of essays on ‘National Parks’ for class 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘National Parks’ especially written for school and college students.
Essay on National Parks
- Essay on Corbett National Park (Project Tiger)
- Essay on Betla National Park (Tiger Reserve)
- Essay on Kanha National Park (Project Tiger)
- Essay on Sunderbans National Park (Tiger Reserve)
- Essay on Gir National Park (Gir Lion Project)
- Essay on Bandipur National Park (Tiger Reserve)
- Essay on Bannerghatta National Park
- Essay on Kaziranga National Park
- Essay on Keibul Lamjao National Park
- Essay on Dachigam National Park (Project Hangul)
1. Essay on Corbett National Park (Project Tiger):
Originally in 1936, this was declared as Hailey National Park (under United Provinces National Park Act) after the name of Governor of United Provinces Sri Malcolm Hailey, who took keen interest in its development.
This is the first National Park of this subcontinent. After independence, it was renamed as Ram Ganga National Park in the name Ram Ganga River which is the sole perennial source of water for this park.
Further, to honour Jim Corbett, a famous hunter and naturalist, who played a pivotal role in its development, the park was renamed as Corbett National Park in 1956. Corbett used to live at Kaladungi, a nearby village.
In 1973, the National Park was declared as Tiger Reserve to afford special protection to the tigers of this park. The actual functioning of Tiger Reserve started from 1974. The Corbett Tiger Reserve is roughly a trapezoidal valley in the South Patli Doon below the Central Himalayan foot-hills with its long axis more or less West to East.
The western two- thirds of the area in the Pauri-Garhwal district and eastern one-third in Nainital. The highest peak in this tiger reserve is Kanda Peak (1210 mts) situated in north-west of reserve.
Sources of Water:
Ram Ganga River is a perennial source besides a large network of nallas, hill-streams and waterholes which remain full during monsoon and some winter water but dry up during summer.
Elephant, Sambhar, Nilgai, Goral, Cheetal, Para, Barking deer, Wild boar (omnivorous) etc.
Tiger, Panther, Wild dog, Jackal, Red fox, Black bear, Sloth bear (omnivorous), Common otter Indian civet, Palm civet, Mongoose, Long-earned hedgehog, Shrew etc. Eight kinds of bats have been reported from this park. Hare, Northern Palm-squirrel and Porcupine are also common.
Peacock, Jungle-fowl, Partridge, Water-birds like Ducks, Falcons, Coots, Dab chicks, Naktas, King Fisher besides some carnivorous birds like Hawks, Vultures etc. Many migratory birds also visit the Ram Ganga River during winter.
Crocodiles (Muggar) and Gharial, Common Monitor- lizard and some Lesser-lizards, Soft-shelled tortoises.
Python, Cobra, Viper, Water-snake, Boa, Cat-snake, Wolf-snake etc.
Major efforts in management include protection and improvement of the habitat. Though park’s habitat is self-sufficient for the existing fauna, however, time to time the various operations like fire protection, development of grasslands and maintenance of existing waterholes are done. The park remains closed for tourists during rainy season.
15th November to 15th June
2. Essay on Betla National Park (Tiger Reserve):
Total Area – 1026 sq.kms.
It is situated in the western part of Chotanagpur plateau in Jharkhand State stretching from the edge of Netarhat hill range in the south to Auranga River in north and from Latehar Sarju road in the east to the border of Madhya Pradesh in the west. It lies between latitude 23°27′ & 23°54’N and longitude 82°52′ & 84°26′ E. There are 45 revenue villages and 10 forest villages.
The need to conserve wildlife was realized and a portion of this Tiger Reserve was developed. In 1962, an area of 249.16 sq.kms, received attention and some water-points and watch-towers were constructed, but the habitat was not protected and felling of trees and bamboos continued till the creation of Tiger Reserve which was declared on 4th June 1974. The Tiger Reserve as now constituted comprises most of the forests of Daltonganj South Forest Division and is 1026 sq. kms. in extent.
The basic concept of Project Tiger is total environmental- conservation in an adequately large faunal area as free as possible from human- disturbance and for this, core-area of 201 sq. kms. was carved out which is privative forests almost in the middle of the Reserve. Further, it was declared as National Park in 1986.
History shows that these forests were subjected to Jhumming till 1949, so the forests were badly exploited for commercial and other purposes. The forests were open to grazing all through the year. The estimated cattle-population of this area was approximately 30,000.00 Forest-fires were another important factor which has done considerable damage to these forests. Mostly the fires are caused by the Mahua-pickers.
Past Management of Wildlife:
These forests were very rich in wildlife and the history shows that rewards were kept for killing wild animals such as Rs.25/- for full grown Tiger, Rs.5/- for Leopard and Wolf and Rs. 2.50 for a Bear. The emphasis was then laid more on the destruction than for saving the animals. A census of Tiger-population in an area of 299 sq. km. of this area by W.J. Nicholson of Imperial Forest Services in 1934 was reported as 32 tigers viz. an average one tiger per 9.3 sq.km.
At the time of Tiger Reserve declaration, the population-density of tiger was 1 tiger per 33 sq. km.
Undulating track. Important hills are Murhar, Netarhat, Huluk and Gulgul (Highest 1140 mts.).
Summer maximum temperature 48°C (1978) and winter temperature minimum 3°C .The temperature shows clear variation with the quality of forests.
Average annual rainfall is 1189 to 1382 mm. In 1966 there had been a severe draught.
Main rivers are Koel with its three tributaries Auranga, Burha and Pandra. Most of these dry up during summer creating acute shortage of water. In wet months, the entire reserve is traversed by small riverlets and channels.
Geology (Rock and Soil):
Main rocks of this reserve are laterite, quartzite, gneiss, gondwana, amphibolites etc. The soil is shallow sandy loam which becomes more clayey when shale is present. Alluvial soil is found in villages.
The forests of this reserve are dry peninsular sal, northern dry mixed deciduous forests, dry bamboo brake, moist peninsular high and low level sal etc. Some areas bear secondary moist deciduous forest and aegle forest. As a result of Jhumming, some grassy blanks are also present in this reserve.
Tiger prefers cool secluded corner of the forest usually a nalla-bed under thick shade. During day time, it prefers to live in dimly lit caves. In this reserve, the territory for each tiger is approximately 10 sq. kms.
Common langur (Presbytes entellus), Red -faced monkey/Rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) Hare, Indian porcupine, Elephant (Tuskless breed), Gaur, Nilgai, Sambhar, Cheetal, Braking deer, Wild boar etc.
Tiger, Leopard, Wolf, jungle cats, Wild dog, Mongoose, Small civet, Palm civet etc.
Jackal and Hyaena.
Palmau was noted for its tigers in the 18th Century, but due to shooting and poisoning their number went down as low as 22 in the Reserve when it was established in 1974. Due to protection of their habitat their number has now gone up.
The elephant found in the reserve are mostly of tuskless breed. They generally live in Betla from August to March and then move to southern portion of the Reserve. They have damaged Betla Bamboo Forest extensively.
They are expert at climbing trees and prey on many animals.
i. Fires – During mahua season
iii. Exploitation – Illicit felling
iv. Human disturbances
v. Mining etc.
vi. Army exercises
viii.Diseases – Mouth & Foot Diseases (MFD) specially.
i. Ban on all forestry operations.
ii. Habitat manipulation.
iii. Fire Protection – Maintenance of fire-lines, fire watch-towers, control-burring etc.
iv. Effective protection against poaching, grazing etc.
v. Catchment treatment.
vi. Improvement of grasslands for cheetal etc.
vii. Tourism/education, museum (Nature Interpretation centre).
3. Essay on Kanha National Park (Project Tiger):
It is located in the Sylvan Maikal Hills in Mandla and Balaghat districts on the Satpura ranges in Madhya Pradesh State. The park has unique wildlife habitat in the finest natural form. The park has been named from the old Kanha village which is encompassed by vast Rolling Meadows.
Evergreen sal forest interspersed with Rolling Meadows is in the valleys below. The spacious grassy table tops on hills, the mixed forests with dense bamboos are on the hill slopes. Numerous meandering streams flowing the park give pleasant natural look with the ideal habitat to the wildlife.
940 sq. kms.
The Park is open from 1st November to 30th June.
The important wild animals found in this park are Tiger, Panther, Cheetal, Sambhar, Nilgai, Gaur (Indian bison), Langur (Presbytes entellus), Barasingha (Swamp deer), Barking deer, Blackbuck, Wild pig, wild dog, Jackal etc.
The Barasinga found here is called as “Branderi”, hard ground variety of barasingha, namely Cervus duvauceli branderi. This variety of barasingha is found only in this very park.
1933: Sanctuary created with 250 sq. km.
1955: Declared as National Park.
1962-70: Area brought to 446 sq. kms.
1974: Brought under Project Tiger.
1976: Area extended to 940 sq. kms. as core-area and 1005 sq.km.as buffer-area.
Special Features of Park:
(i) 22 villages were relocated outside the park settling them with all infra-facilities. It was very praiseworthy and progressive approach in the field of wildlife management.
(ii) Comprehensive ecosystem-conservation.
(iii) Poaching, livestock-grazing eliminated and fire-accidents brought to minimum.
(iv) Barasingha (Swamp deer) named as Branderi saved from extinction.
(v) Tiger population enhanced under Project Tiger.
(vi) Management backed by fruitful research.
(vii) Involvement of communities in conservation efforts.
(viii) “Park Interpretation Programme” was introduced for the first time in India and probably in Asia. This programme was introduced with the view to educate and make propaganda about the whole intact natural condition (ecosystem); besides to give emphasis or highlight on Project Tiger so that general mass may understand the valve of nature and ecosystem and ultimately be cautious to conserve the nature, wildlife, environment and food-chain.
By the interpretation programme, they will be able to know that the presence of tiger, as the top carnivore, is the climax of the ecosystem indicting that such area has sufficient quantity of vegetation to provide food for herbivores on which tigers (top carnivore) are alive.
In this way, the presence of tigers in sufficient number as per the carrying-capacity of the habitat indicates that in such place the food-chain and food-web of the ecosystem is naturally balanced and has entirely perfect undisturbed environment.
It is the main aim and objective of any naturalist or wildlife manager to conserve the nature and, hence, the project tiger is a programme to protect the tiger in its natural-environment.
(ix) There is sufficient management of the basic needs of wildlife (food, water and shelter) here.
(x) There are more than hundred patrolling camps to strengthen the park-management.
(xi) The modern technologies, particularly from wildlife-management point of view, are applied here to run the park smoothly. In this regard, the output of fruitful research work is also applied.
(xii) Keeping in view for future abundancy of population of wildlife, the core-areas outside the park have been also created like “small sanctuaries” in which certain population of the animals has been kept and those core-areas (small sanctuaries) are connected with the main park so that it may fulfill as a continuous-zone to migrate the surplus population to come from and go into the core-areas. This will also solve the problem of inbreeding among the animals as well as diverting (migrating) them in different places.
4. Essay on Sunderbans National Park (Tiger Reserve):
2585 sq.km. (Out of 4262 sq. km.) declared in 1973.
1330 sq. km. (which was earlier core-area of Tiger Reserve. Within this sanctum-sanctorum 124.40 sq. km. area was preserved as primitive area to act a gene-pool).
This is the first National Park in West Bengal State. The national park has an ideal setup i.e. outwardly, it is strictly preserved core and well demarcated buffer and multiple-use zone so that the sanctum- sanctorum is spared of any biotic impact.
The mangrove forests occurring at the mouth of Ganga-Brahmaputra river system in lower Bengal is known in this part of the country as Sunderbans. The mangrove vegetation or “Mangals”, as they are collectively known are characterized by species which have high tolerance for saline environment. They display several adaptations like breathing-roots or pneumatophores, stilt roots (for support), salt excretory glands, vivipary and other similar features.
Mangrove swamps characterize the estuaries of many of the Indian rivers which drain into the Bay of Bengal. In India, the most well-known mangrove forests are found in the Sunderbans delta of the river Ganges where both Brahmaputra and Ganges join into the Bay of Bengal. Here the river has divided itself into hundreds of streams to form narrow- creeks.
In between these creeks, the mud-flats of the delta region lie, which are periodically flooded through tidal inundations by the sea. Large quality of silt are brought down by the rivers each year and deposited into the sea engulfing more land from the shallow sea. Waterlogging, humidity, salinity and regular inundations are the salient features of this habitat.
It can be divided into three zones:
(a) The low or the freshly formed land which remains mostly below the tidal level.
(b) The slightly higher land which is frequently inundated by salt-water and
(c) The higher ground generally above the tidal level.
The animal community in these mangrove forests make the environment very much complex. At low tide, the exposed mud -flats in the lower portions are invaded by small Crabs and Fishes. The fishes have special adaptations which make them largely independent of water. They are the mud-skippers or semi -terrestrial gobies.
They can leap with a flick of the tail or even swim across the mud or water but normally move slowly crawling on their pectoral fins, but back in the water they revert to the normal fish mode of swimming and respiration. The most peculiar of mud-skipper is its ability to climb up the roots of mangrove trees which presents the strange sight of tree-climbing fishes. Crowds of small active crabs settle over the mud-flats as the tide recedes.
The males of land crabs and fibber crabs are the most famous having huge brightly coloured claws. All these crabs live in guarded burrows. As soon as the tide recedes, they emerge roiling out balls of mud and sand between their burrows. These are their escape-holes into which they hide if danger threatens in the form of storks, herons, monkey or domestic ducks.
At high tide, they retreat into their holes and block out the entrance to keep out the water trapping an air bubble which enables them to breathe. One small crab, the Dorippe, had association with another animal’s species, the sea-anemone (symbiosis). On its back, the dorippe has two pairs of legs modified as little claws that carry an oval plate on which a small sea-anemone lives.
The association is mutually beneficial as the anemone gains a firm base for attachment and also benefits from the scraps of food dropped by the crab, and in return, the crab gains protection from the anemone because it has nasty ting which discourages the predators from attacking this combination.
Above the mud-flats on the mangrove trees themselves live numerous Weaver-ants which make their nests in trees by weaving together five or more leaves with their fine silken thread. This nest, guarded by black soldier ants, houses the colony’s strange green queen. Columns of red workers scavenge over ground and bushes for food.
In the higher region of the mangrove, the fauna changes and typical land animals like Spotted dear, Pigs, Monitor lizards and Monkeys characterize the area. Earlier, rhinoceros, swap deer, gaur were also a feature of Sunderbans but now they do not exist in the area.
Two world-wide endangered species viz. the Olive ridley-turtle and the Estuarine-crocodile occur in this area. In case of estuarine-crocodile, conservation measures like captive breeding and its release and protection in the wild are in practice. Likewise, hatching of olive ridley-turtle eggs in the hatcheries and releasing the same in the sea are also done for proper propagation.
Thus, the mangrove fauna is represented by a variety of mammals (the tiger as supreme), birds, reptiles, fishes and crustaceans. Numerous phytoplanktons and zooplanktons occurring in the water build up intricate food-web in basic stratum.
The most interesting animal of the Sunderbans is the Sunderbans Tiger which has adapted so marvellously to this strange habitat of high salinity and periodic inundation leading an amphibious life. They sustain their life even on fish and crab besides on the normal prey of spotted deer and wild boar.
The most peculiar trait of the Sunderbans tiger is its tendency to man-eating. It is believed that all Sunderbans tigers are man-eaters and every year a large number of fisherman, honey-collectors and other villagers fall prey to these tigers. The tigers are known to swim in the creeks and climb into boats to take their prey in thick bushes to ambush the honey-collectors.
This peculiar trait of man-eating has not been ascertained as yet; however, it is assumed that this may be due to inadequate protection of fisherman in fishing in narrow boats or collecting honey inside the forest or may be due to ecological correlation between its saline-habitat including fisherman and the saline food-habit of the tiger.
The Project Tiger authorities have undertaken a lot of steps and experiments like Tiger Guard Gear (for protection of wood-cutter and honey-collector who when under this fiberglass armour suit are less liable to injury from a preying tiger). Compensation is also paid to the next kin of killed/injured person by tiger.
An experiment has also been taken by setting up dummies of wood-cutter, honey-collector and fisherman with electricity charged wires in places known to harbour confirmed man- eaters.
It is expected that while attempting preying on these dummies, the tiger will get an electric shock and will desist from attacking human-beings in future. There are instances that dummies were attacked and the tiger retreated in pain after receiving the shock but still man-eating by the tiger is going on.
Thus, the mangrove-ecosystem is a rich reservoir of renewable- resources. The resources used in the mangrove-ecosystem are numerous. A large quantity of fuel, timber, fishes; honey, bee-wax etc. are harvested annually from the buffer-area. The strictly protected core-area of the park acts as the safe propagation ground for fauna and flora. The chances viewing of a tiger, crocodile, birds, etc. in the midst of rivers in dense forest are worth seeing for tourists.
5. Essay on Gir National Park (Gir Lion Project):
It is situated in the Saurashtra peninsula of Junagarh district of Gujarat State.
Status of Area:
This project was initiated in 1972 which was earlier declared as sanctuary in 1965. In 1974, the adjoining forests of Amreli district were included. An area of 140.40 sq.km. in jamwala and Chhodavadi ranges consisting mainly of teak open scrub forest of Gir was declared under it in 1975 and an additional area of 118.31 sq. km. was included in it, and thus the total area increased under this National Park to 258.71 sq. km. All the Maldharis were shifted outside from the national park core-area and all forestry operations therein were completely banned.
Panthera leo persica
Panther, Striped hyaena, Sambhar, Nilgai, Cheetal, Four-horned antelope, Chinkara, Wild boar and Crocodiles.
Description of Main Animal (Lion):
The Asiatic Lion is a gracious looking animal with a pale yellowish-brown to sandy-grey coat devoid of any marking. A light or dark coloured mane adornes the head in the male. The tail has a long tassel of hair at the end. The cubs are marked with spots and stripes. An adult measure 270-300 cm in total length and the female is slightly smaller.
Mating-season is October/November and gestation -period is about 116 days. Two-three cubs are produced in a litter generally. It is gregarious top carnivore and lives in small families known as Pride.
Status of Lion:
In recent past, Asiatic Lion used to roam over a vast stretch of Northern and Central and Central portion of this subcontinent. But due to irrational killing coupled with its habitat destruction for various purposes, a stage came when the total number went down to only 15 and now-a-days this magnificent feline is found only in Gir Forests of Gujarat.
Habitat and Prey Animal:
Its habitat includes mainly dry teak forests and open scrub jungle. Major herbivores forming its-food-base are deer and antelopes found in this national park.
Major Guidelines for Management of the Park:
i. To conserve the Gir habitat; if possible, improve its health and quality, increase its area and retain its aesthetic values.
ii. To propagate wildlife of every kind for its own sake and specifically, the endangered lion.
iii. To generally exclude all exotic forms of plant and animal life and preserve all non-human elements of the existing ecosystem in their natural relationship to one and another.
iv. To reserve or minimise human-interference within the ecosystem.
v. To provide recreation for tourists.
vi. To recast the Working Plan in the interest of wildlife habitat and watershed conservation rather than silvicultural revenue.
vii. To make it a model of ecologically sound practices for similar areas.
viii. To protect the habitat from over-grazing and lopping.
ix. To improve the lot of Maldharis and their settlement outside the sanctuary.
x. To unify control of all aspects under a single authority with suitable training in the field of management of wildlife, nature reserve and national parks.
6. Essay on Bandipur National Park (Tiger Reserve):
It is situated at a distance of 80 km from Mysore City in Mysore district of Karnataka State (Highway between Mysore and Ooty). It lies between North latitudes 12°3’30” & 12°54’1 7″ and between East longitudes 76°7′ & 76°52’40”.
874.20 sq. km. In the beginning the Project Tiger area was 690 sq.km. After twelve years, the remaining area was included as buffer-area of this Tiger Reserve in 1985.
Project Tiger as a Central Sector Plan scheme was initiated in 1973-74 in Bandipur National Park. The main objective behind creation of Tiger Reserve was to ensure maintenance of viable population of tigers in their natural-environment and to preserve such areas as part of our national-heritage for the benefit of education and enjoyment of present and future generations.
Bandipur Tiger Reserve is managed on sound principles using the latest wildlife management techniques and demonstrates the important ecological, educational, scientific and cultural achievements.
Terrain is undulating and broken by chains of rolling hills with vast stretches of valleys that are sprinkled with meadows and seasonal water-courses. The highest peak is in Hind Gopalaswamy Hills with a height of 1454.50 mts. above sea level and the lowest point in the reserve is along the Waranchi Stream at 780 mts above sea level.
The Reserve is drained by the Kabim, Nagu and Moyar rivers and by Bavali, Moolehole, Kekkanahalla and Waranchi streams. The Moyar cuts into a picturesque gorge known as “Moyar Gorge” surprisingly grand and incomparably beautiful. The view from the “Mysore Ditch” with 260 mts. vertical fall presents the most extensive picturesque landscape with the famous Nilgiri Mountains and backdrop. This is the only gorge found in South India.
The reserve consists of southern tropical moist mixed deciduous and southern tropical dry deciduous forest types. Teak forms the dominant vegetation with some other valuable trees like rosewood, sandalwood, laurel, yellow teak, kydia and bamboos. This well preserved reserve occupies the rain shadow areas of the Western Ghats and has always been a treasure trove of wildlife. The ecosystem diversity is manifest in the variety of fauna.
Cheetal, Muntjac, Sambhar, Chausingha, Gaur, Wild boar, Elephant; Moue deer, Black-naped, hare, Sloth bear, Langur, Bonnet macaque, Giant squirrel and Flying squirrel.
Tiger, Leopard, Wild dog, jungle cat, Small Indian civet, Toddy cat, common mongoose and Striped -neck mongoose.
Crocodiles, Snakes and Monitor lizards.
The avifauna is varied and rich, notably Pied hornbill, Green pigeon, Woodpeckers, Drongoes, Bee eaters, King fishers, Pea fowl, Jungle fowl, Partridges and Quails.
Extent of Reserve:
The extended Bandipur Tiger Reserve over 865.73 sq. km. comprises of:
1. Wilderness zone (core-zone) of 523 sq. km.
2. Buffer-zone of 260 sq. km.
3. Tourism zone of 82 sq.km. and
4. Administrative zone of 1.0 sq.kim.
Equal status of the treatment has been extended to all the zones. Some forest areas of buffer-zone which were found improved in floristic composition are elevated in status and included in wilderness-zone.
The management staff includes park wardens, foresters, park guards and park watchers. Each park guard/watcher is in overall charge of a sector comprising an area of 800 to 850 ha. These are in all 118 sectors. Each park guard is provided with an assistant known as trekker who accompanies him during visits.
They are also responsible for fire-fighting during fire-seasons. The reserve has anti-poching-squads and anti-smuggling squad who are supervised by park guards. Each squad is provided with necessary fire arms. Some of the squads are equipped with trained elephants for perambulation in difficult terrain and along the inter-state borders of Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
The reserve has a network of compartment boundaries and view- lines which also act as fire-lines. Every park warden has been provided with the fast moving vehicle for quick transportation of men and equipment’s. There are check-posts located on two highways which pass through the reserve.
There are wireless stations located at vantage points supported by mobile-units which form effective communication unit to take quick action for preventing any unlawful activity in the park.
Stoppage of Grazing:
All the local livestock have been shifted outside the park since 1976, thus, a complete ban on grazing has been achieved. This has helped in improving the habitat to a great extent. However some occasional illicit-grazing still continues during which some live-stocks are killed by the wild carnivores resulting into annoyance to the cattle owner which leads poisoning of wild animals. Sometimes, poisoning of wild animals outside the park is also reported.
Relocation of Villages:
Forest villages namely Gundre and Banur, which were inside the Reserve, have been successfully relocated elsewhere outside. As many as 41 families with their 120 heads of cattle were shifted out during 1978-79 at cost of Rs.60,000/- Nearly 410 acres of land was cleared in the district jungle outside the reserve and each family was allocated 4 acres of land in addition to the payment of adequate compensation.
Protection of Habitat for Development:
Effective measures have been taken to prevent conversion of forests for any other non-forestry purposes.
Management plan for the Project Tiger was prepared and published in 1974 which envisaged sound management and improvement of habitat, water etc.
Many effective prescriptions have been applied for the development of habitat.
Animal Population Trends:
From the census figures, it is clear that the population of tiger and many other major wild animals have shown rising tendency. This rising tendency underlines effectiveness of sound management practices applied in the park.
An Interpretation Centre, present in the park, is responsible for the publicity, extension and education work to raise consciousness in the common mass. There is a nice children’s library also to educate the growing generations.
Improvised Scaring Devices:
Some cracker devices are fixed and concealed to scare the wild animals for preventing their passing out of the park area.
7. Essay on Bannerghatta National Park:
104.27 sq. km. (wilderness-area)
Situated in Karnataka State Just 22 km from Bangalore.
Bannerghatta National Park was created in 1974 to protect local fauna and flora and to provide a place for recreation.
The wilderness-area comprises of enfolding dry thorny scrub and dry deciduous scrub jungle.
The park proper contains a Miniature-zoo with three Safaris, Picnic areas, Life-size Prehistoric Dinosaur Models and Reptile Park.
Suvarnmukhi river is the main hydrant.
Some lions and lionesses have been kept roaming free in an enclosed area of 15ha. A few tigers are also kept in this enclosure separately. The habitat consists of open jungles with few rocks out crops. The entire area is safely fenced.
Visitors can move inside the safari only in a close minibus of the park. No one is allowed to get down from the vehicle. Private vehicles are not allowed to enter the safari. Regular supply of food and water is the responsibility of trained staff of the park.
Total area under this safari is 48 ha and it contains a large number of herbivores like Gaur, Cheetal, Sambar and Barking deer. Visits inside this safari are permitted only in park’s vehicle. The safari contains bush, green-cover of palatable tree and forage species, which forms sufficient food-base for the existing livestock.
This Park contains a large number of reptiles kept in separate sunken pits. Each species is kept separately with a label displaying the details of the species. Poisonous and non -poisonous snakes, rare varieties of tortoises and lizards are the main attractions.
8. Essay on Kaziranga National Park:
Initially when it was a Sanctuary, its area was 166, sq. km. but the area of National Park was increased to 849.79 sq.km.
It is located in Sibsagar district of Assam State about 217 km. from Gauhati.
Great Indian One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) Wild buffalo, Tiger, Leopard, Elephant, Gaur, Gat, Mongoose, Otter, Civet cat, Wild boar, Swamp dear, Hog deer, Sambhar, Langur, Python, Pelican, Partridge, Floricans, Hoolock and a number of migratory birds during winter.
The Great Indian One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis): It is one of the largest of all existing rhinos. Male may reach over 6′ (180 cm) at the shoulder. The average height is about 5’8″ (170 cms). The record size of horn is 24″ (61cms) but 8″ (203 mm) is the average. Gestation-period is 16 months.
The skin of this massive creature is divided into great shields by heavy folds behinds the shoulders and in front of the thighs. The front fold (shoulder) does not continue right across the back which is a distinctive character of this rhino. With its grotesque built, long boat-shaped head, its fold of armour and tuberculated hide; the animal looks like a monster of some bygone age.
Formerly it was extensively distributed in the Gangetic plain but today restricted to parts of Nepal and West Bengal in the north and Assam. In Nepal, it is found only in the isolated areas of the plains.
Though it prefers swamp and grasses, it is also found in ravines and low hills. The animals are solitary in nature, though several may occupy the same patch of jungle. Its food chiefly consists of grass.
As evident from the census reports, the habitat is nice for the existing fauna and the population of Indian Rhino has shown steep rise to an extent that some animals have been introduced in Dudhwa National Park.
There is a small island surrounded by water and some shore-land. Rare birds like Painted storks, Adjutant stork, Sarus, Crane, Demoiselle crane, Darter and a variety of ducks including Brahminy duck and the Bar-headed goose are kept here.
Other Animal Attractions:
Other animals kept in this park in separate enclosures include Leopard, Golden langur, Common langur, Lion -tailed and Assamess macaques, Gharial, Mugger etc.
The park also owns elephant both young adults. Elephant rides are offered to the children only.
Littering, teasing or feeding the animal. Carrying pets, using any musical instruments, making noise.
This is a nicely managed small park where the main objective is to create awareness regarding wildlife resource among the common mass. For the purpose of publicity and education, the park authorities arrange video-film shows and special lectures etc. in addition to the facilities organizing native campus. Through safaris, the park ensures close watching of the magnificent cats (lion/tiger).
The reptile park, bird is land and the several separate animal enclosures, offer a good opportunity of identification and habit studies of various animals kept there. The facility for recreation not only provides enjoyment but also acts as a very effective means of mass -communication through which one can learn lot of details regarding wildlife-resource of our country.
9. Essay on Keibul Lamjao National Park:
It is situated at the south-eastern corner of the Loghtak Lake in Manipur State. Total area of this national park is 40 sq.km.
This was officially gazetted as Sanctuary in 1968 and on 28th March, 1977; it was declared as a National Park after extinguishing all the agricultural and fishing rights within its area.
Manipur Brow-antlered deer or Thamin (Cervus eldi eldi) locally called as “Sangai”. This is perhaps most localized mammal sub-species in the world. It is also called as “Dancing Deer” due to its locomotion on Phumdi looking as dancing posture.
Other wild animals are Hog deer, Wild goat, Water-birds etc.
Description of Thamin/Sangai/Dancing Deer:
It resembles sambhar in general body shape. Standing height varies from 115 to 120 cm. at the shoulder but the female is little smaller than male. Antler measures 107 -120 cm in length and has extremely long brow-tine, which joins the main beam in such a manner that the two form a continuous curve at right angle to the pedicel.
Its hair is coarse in summer and shaggy in winter. The colour of male is dark -brown in winter and fawn in summer; the female is light fawn and young is spotted. Body weight of adult is found 90-110 kg.
8 months, only one fawn at a time is produced.
Status of Sangai:
It officially became extinct in 1951, but a few years later was reported to be existing in the swampy area of the habitat. In 1954, the total number was reported to be 100 (Tikader). As per aerial census conducted on 28th February, 1977; the total population consisted of 18 deer (6 stags, 8 hinds and 4 fawns).
Apart from the tree hills of Pabot, Toya and Chingio, the remainder of the park is one vast moran of floating organic matter called as “Phum or Phumdi”. Phumdi consists of decayed vegetation of varying thickness of 1 to 4′. It floats upon the water of the lake, the level of which varies with the season.
During the driest months of February to March, some of the phumdi especially along the edge of the park rests on the hard ground below. With the onset of the monsoon, the major portion of the park gets covered with water and the animals seek refuge on the hills.
When Sangai moves on phumdi, it looks like in dancing posture and hence called as “Dancing deer”. Among the grasses, lshing kombong (Saccharum latifolium) is a favourite food of Sangai. Though, the Sangai has adopted itself admirably to the Phumdi habitat but it prefers the hard-areas and hilly-ground also. Hog deer are the next largest group of competitor of Sangai in the areas.
1. Although the national park has a large area but the Sangai-habitat never exceeds 6 sq. miles which is rich in phumdi. So any further decrease in Phumdi is bound to affect the Sangai-population.
2. Illegal cuttings of grasses in the national park reduce considerably the existing fodder which itself is insufficient for the herbivores present.
3. Illicit-grazing in the area is causing damage to the habitat.
4. Illicit-fishing in the national park area causes lot of disturbances to the Sangai-population.
5. Poaching, of course, is another limiting-factor but has been minimized due to the intensive protective measures in the area.
6. A very significant new limiting-factor is the construction of Coffer Dam which will permanently raise the water of Keibul Lamjao to the level of 2525, about MSL and there would be no seasonal fluctuation in water level which was good for Sangai. The dam will change the entire ecology of the area, the effect of which can be ascertained by a detailed study.
As the rutting season of the deer is during dry periods when water table is at the lowest level and larger portion of phumdi remains settled on the hard ground; construction of dam will prevent settlement of phumdi which will affect the rutting as well as reproduction of Sangai.
(a) Habitat manipulation mainly by planting palatable grasses.
(b) Ban on poaching, fishing and illicit-grazing etc.
(c) Captive-breeding and release in natural habitat.
Three sub-species of Brow-antlered deer are found.
i. Manipur Brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldi eldi) called as Sangai/Thamin/Dancing deer.
ii. Another Brow-antlered deer named as Thailand Brow-antlered deer (Cervus eldi sianensis) has become extinct from Thailand and is represented in Combodia. Very small population is on the verge of extinction.
iii. Another species found in Burma becoming rarer each year.
10. Essay on Dachigam National Park (Project Hangul):
Total area is 141.00 sq.km.
It is situated in Jammu & Kashmir State.
In 1970, the Hangul Project was taken up by the IUCN/WWF and was declared as National Park in 1981.
Kashmir Stag or Hangul (Cervus eiaphus hurtglu). It is a large deer which measures 120-130 cm in standing height at the shoulder and 230 -232 cm in length of the head and body. Each antler has generally 5-6 tines or sometimes more; the second tine considerably exceeds the first tine in length.
Length of antler along outside curve is 128 cm and girth is 23cm. Its coat colour varies from light to dark brown with white rump-patch or caudal-disc which extends for a short distance over the tail. The sides and limbs are paler and the chin and ears whitish. The body colour fades during summer. Its body -weight is approximately 204 kg. Gestation-period is 6 months.
Hangul is found in the northern side of Kashmir Valley (at present restricted to Dachigam) and north of Chamba (Himachal Pradesh).
Habit and Habitat:
It occurs singly or in small herds of 2-18 individuals in dense forests or in the ravines of lower Dachigam at elevations between 1 750 to 3650 m. During winter it collects into large herds and moves to lower elevation. The stag sheds its antlers around March and new ones get perfection by September.
The rut starts by mid-September and ends by the end of October. The stag establishes harem. The young is born in April-March. Several females give birth in the vicinity of each other.
Territoriality had been reported only in male during rut-period. Habitat includes scrub and savannah forests.
Factors such as wanton-destruction of habitat, cattle – grazing and extension of cultivation, human interference in its natural habitat etc. have caused depletion in the population of the Hangul. From an estimated number of 3000 in 1940, its number ran down between 140 and 170 in 1970; however effective implementation of the conservation plan, the population has increased considerably.
Black bear, Brown bear, Leopard, Musk deer, Serow, Pheasants etc.
It is roughly rectangular in shape approximately 22.5 km long and 8 km wide. The entire area is divided into two sectors, Lower Dachigam in the west and the Upper Dachigam in the higher reaches in the east, comprising about 2/3rd of the total area. Mountain ranges, enclosing national park is great Zanskar range which forms north-west branch of the Central Himalayan axis.
The folds of this range are thrown into a number of undulations enclosing narrow gullies and broader flanked gullies, locally known as Nar. The two steep rides; one arising from Harwan Reservoir with peaks between 600-3000 m and north-east of Newthed rising to 4000 m from the natural boundaries of Dachigam. The riverine portion is almost completely fenced to enclose forest.
Dachigam experiences a very irregular climate with large inter-yearly variation in the precipitation, length of dry period and season of their occurrence. The average climate is sub-Mediterranean with a bixeric regime having two spells of dryness one in June and the other in September-November and high precipitation during cold season.
Habitat of this herbivore includes poor type of Scrub and Savannah which show considerable fluctuation due to climatic-changes.
Four large predators namely Himalayan Brown bear, Himalayan Black bear, Leopard and Snow leopard (reported from Upper Dachigam only) have acted as limiting-factors for Hangul.
Till 1975, it was a major factor and afterwards suitable measures had been taken to control it to a great extent.
Viros John’s disease has been found in case of captive- animals which was found to be common in sheep-population of Dachigam, may act as lethal if it is spread in wild-population.
Disturbances by Man:
Mating of the hangul has been found to be affected by human disturbances.
The management efforts include the following effective steps:
1. Prevention of sheep-grazing.
2. Prevention of wood-cutting.
3. Proper conservation and protection measures and above all, habitat-improvement by planting ecologically suitable fodder species.