Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Tsunami’ for class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Tsunami’ especially written for school and college students.
Essay on Tsunami
- Essay on the Meaning of Tsunami
- Essay on the Causes of Tsunami
- Essay on the Damages Caused by Tsunami
- Essay on the Drawback of Tsunami
- Essay on the Scales of Intensity And Magnitude of Tsunami
- Essay on Tsunami Warning Sign
- Essay on the Questions for Tsunami Preparedness
- Essay on the Research on Tsunami Disaster Prevention
Essay # 1. Meaning of Tsunami:
When a large earthquake happens beneath an ocean floor, it can change the level of the floor suddenly, raising and lowering it substantially. This produces a large disturbance in the sea. The size and energy of disturbance depends on the magnitude of the earth quake.
Most severe earthquakes occur near the subduction zone of the tectonic plates. A wave starts spreading out. The height of the wave might be only a few meters, but this wave is very different from the normal oceanic waves produced by the action of the wind on the surface.
This wave invokes up and down movement of the whole column of the ocean above the affected zone that might be hundreds of kilometres in length.
The speed of the wave in the deep ocean is nearly the same as the cruising speed of a jet liner, namely 7-8 hundred kilometres per hour. In the middle of the ocean surface, this wave might be seen as a gentle swell and fall of the ocean surface and does not represent a major hazard to boats and ships. But it becomes dangerously high and devastating when it approaches the coast. This is called the much feared tsunami.
Tsunami (pronounced tsoo – nah – mee) is a Japanese word, which means ‘harbour wave’. Tsu means harbour and nami stands for wave. Tsunamis are large waves that are generated when the sea floor is deformed by seismic activity, vertically displacing the overlying water in the ocean.
An earthquake occurred with its epicentre 257km south-southwest of Sumatra in December 2004. The magnitude of the earthquake was 8.9 on the Richter scale. That is why, it was most powerful in the world in the past 40 years.
Most of the destruction was caused by seismic waves or tsunami that hit India, Sri Lanka, Malaysia and Thailand within two hours of the first impact of earthquake. This earthquake was the world’s fifth most powerful, since 1900 and the strongest since a 9.2 temblor slammed Alaska in 1964, U.S. earthquake.
It has been observed that the Sumatra quake occurred at a place where several massive geological plates push against each other with a strong force. The survey indicates that 1000 km section along the boundary of the plates shifted motion that triggered the sudden displacement, causing the huge tsunamis.
It may be several meters high when it hits the sea shore. Tsunami may not be one giant wave but a series of waves that come to the coast in a short interval.
An earthquake occurred on 8th May, 2008 at Siachuan in China, which caused widespread destruction. Another earthquake occurred on 11th April, 2012 with powerful magnitude about 500 km south-west of Banda Aceh, on the northern tip of Indonesia’s Sumatra island.
The magnitude of the earthquake was 8.6 on the Richter scale. The termors of varying intensity were felt in Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala and West Bengal. However, this time earthquake has not caused widespread destruction and loss of lives, because the strength of tsunami was very low.
Essay # 2. Causes of Tsunami:
The principal generation mechanism (or cause) of a tsunami is the displacement of a substantial volume of water or perturbation of the sea. This displacement of water is usually attributed to earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions and glacier calvings or more rarely by meteorites and nuclear test. The waves formed in this way are then sustained by gravity. Tides do not play any part in the generation of tsunamis.
Tsunami can be generated when the sea floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. Tectonic earthquakes are a particular kind of earthquake that are associated with the Earth’s crustal deformation; when these earthquakes occur beneath the sea, the water above the deformed area is displaced from its equilibrium position.
More specifically, a tsunami can be generated when thrust faults associated with convergent or destructive plate boundaries move abruptly, resulting in water displacement, owing to the vertical component of movement involved. Movement on normal faults will also cause displacement of the seabed, but the size of the largest of such events is normally too small to give rise to a significant tsunami.
Tsunamis have a small amplitude (wave height) offshore, and a very long wavelength (often hundreds of kilometers long, whereas normal ocean waves have a wavelength of only 30 or 40 meters),  which is why they generally pass unnoticed at sea, forming only a slight swell usually about 300 millimeters (12) above the normal sea surface. They grow in height when they reach shallower water, in a wave shoaling process described below. A tsunami can occur in any tidal state and even at low tide can still inundate coastal areas.
On April 1, 1946, a magnitude-7.8 (Richter scale) earthquake occurred near the Aleutian Islands, Alaska. It generated a tsunami which inundated Hilo on the island of Hawaii with a 14-metre high (46 ft.) surge. The area where the earthquake occurred is where the Pacific Ocean floor is subducting (or being pushed downwards) under Alaska.
Examples of tsunami originating at locations away from convergent boundaries include Storegga about 8,000 years ago, Grand Banks 1929, Papa New Guinea 1998. The Grand Banks and Papua New Guinea tsunamis came from earthquakes which destabilised sediments, causing them to flow into the ocean and generate a tsunami. They dissipated before traveling transoceanic distances. The cause of the Storegga sediment failure is unknown. Possibilities include an overloading of the sediments, an earthquake or a release of gas hydrates (methane etc.)
In the 1950s, it was discovered that larger tsunamis than had previously been believed possible could be caused by giant submarine landslides. These rapidly displace large water volumes, as energy transfers to the water at a rate faster than the water can absorb. Their existence was confirmed in 1958, when a giant landslide in Lituya Bay, Alaska, caused the highest wave ever recorded, which had a height of 524 meters (over 1700 feet).
The wave did not travel far, as it struck land almost immediately. Two people fishing in the bay were killed, but another boat amazingly managed to ride the wave. Another landslide-tsunami event occurred in 1963 when a massive landslide from Monte Toe went into the Vajont Dam in Italy.
The resulting wave overtopped the 262 m (860 ft.) high dam by 250 meters (820 ft.) and destroyed several towns. Around 2,000 people died. Scientists named these waves mega tsunami. Scientists discovered that extremely large landslides from volcanic island collapses may be able to generate mega tsunamis that can cross oceans.
In general, landslides generate displacements mainly in the shallower parts of the coastline, and there is conjecture about the nature of truly large landslides that end in water. This is proven to lead to huge effect in closed bays and lakes, but an open oceanic landslide large enough to cause a tsunami across an ocean has not yet happened since before seismology has been a major area of scientific study, and only very rarely in human history.
Susceptible areas focus for now on the islands of Hawaii and La Palma in the Canary Islands, where large masses of relatively unconsolidated volcanic shield on slopes occur. Considerable doubt exists about how loosely linked these slopes actually are.
Some meteorological condition, especially deep depressions such as tropical cyclones, can generate a type of storm surge called ameteotsunami which raises water heights above normal levels, often suddenly at the shoreline. In the case of deep tropical cyclones, this is due to very low atmospheric pressure and inward swirling winds causing an uplifted dome of water to form under and travel in tandem with the storm. When these water domes reach shore, they rear up in shallows and surge laterally like earthquake-generated tsunamis, typically arriving shortly after landfall of the storm’s eye.
Man-made or Triggered Tsunamis:
There have been studies and at least one attempt to create tsunami waves as a tectonic weapon or whether human behavior may trigger tsunamis, e.g., in the (debunked). In World War II, the New Zealand Military Forces initiated Project Seal, which attempted to create small tsunamis with explosives in the area of today’s Shakespeare Regional Park; the attempt failed.
There has been considerable speculation on the possibility of using nuclear weapons to cause tsunamis near to an enemy coastline. Even during World War II consideration of the idea using conventional explosives was explored. Nuclear testing in the Pacific Proving Ground by the United States seemed to generate poor results.
Operation Cross roads fired two 20 kilotonnes of TNT (84 TJ) bombs, one in the air and one underwater, above and below the shallow (50 m (160 ft.)) waters of the Bikini Atoll lagoon. Fired about 6 km (3.7 mi) from the nearest island, the waves there were no higher than 3-4 m (9.8-13.1 ft.) upon reaching the shoreline.
Other underwater tests, mainly Hardtack I/Wahoo (deep water) and Hardtack 1/ Umbrella (shallow water) confirmed the results. Analysis of the effects of shallow and deep underwater explosions indicate that the energy of the explosions doesn’t easily generate the kind of deep, all-ocean waveforms which are tsunamis; most of the energy creates steam, causes vertical fountains above the water, and creates compressional waveforms. Tsunamis are hallmarked by permanent large vertical displacements of very large volumes of water which don’t occur in explosions.
Essay # 3. Damages Caused by Tsunami:
Tsunamis cause damage by two mechanisms:
The smashing force of a wall of water travelling at high speed, and the destructive power of a large volume of water draining off the land and carrying a large amount of debris with it, even with waves that do not appear to be large. While everyday wind waves have a wavelength (from crest to crest) of about 100 meters (330 ft.) and a height of roughly 2 meters (6.6 ft.), a tsunami in the deep ocean has a much larger wavelength of up to 200 kilometers (120 mi).
Such a wave travels at well over 800 kilometers per hour (500 mph), but owing to the enormous wavelength the wave oscillation at any given point takes 20 or 30 minutes to complete a cycle and has an amplitude of only about 1 meter (3.3 ft.). This makes tsunamis difficult to detect over deep water, where ships are unable to feel their passage.
The reason for the Japanese name “harbour wave” is that sometimes a village’s fishermen would sail out, and encounter no unusual waves while out at sea fishing, and come back to land to find their village devastated by a huge wave. As the tsunami approaches the coast and the waters become shallow, wave shoaling compresses the wave and its speed decreases below 80 kilometers per hour (50 mph).
Its wavelength diminishes to less than 20 kilometers (12 mi) and its amplitude grows enormously. Since the wave still has the same very long period, the tsunami may take minutes to reach full height. Except for the very largest tsunamis, the approaching wave does not break, but rather appears like a fast-moving tidal bore. Open bays and coastlines adjacent to very deep water may shape the tsunami further into a step-like wave with a steep-breaking front.
When the tsunami’s wave peak reaches the shore, the resulting temporary rise in sea level is termed run up. Run up is measured in meters above a reference sea level. A large tsunami may feature multiple waves arriving over a period of hours, with significant time between the wave crests. The first wave to reach the shore may not have the highest run up. About 80% of tsunamis occur in the Pacific Ocean, but they are possible wherever there are large bodies of water, including lakes. They are caused by earthquakes, landslides, volcanic explosions, glacier calvings, and bolides.
Essay # 4. Drawback of Tsunami:
An illustration of rhythmic drawback of surface water associated with a wave that follows a very large drawback may herald the arrival of very large wave.
All waves have a positive and negative peak, i.e., a ridge and a trough. In the case of a propagating wave like a tsunami, either may be the first to arrive. If the first part to arrive at shore is the ridge, a massive breaking wave or sudden flooding will be the first effect noticed on land.
However, if the first part to arrive is a trough, a drawback will occur as the shoreline recedes dramatically, exposing normally submerged areas. Drawback can exceed hundreds of meters, and people unaware of the danger sometimes remain near the shore to satisfy their curiosity or to collect fish from the exposed seabed.
A typical wave period for a damaging tsunami is about 12 minutes. This means that if the drawback phase is the first part of the wave to arrive, the sea will recede, with areas well below sea level exposed after 3 minutes. During the next 6 minutes the tsunami wave trough builds into a ridge, and during this time the sea is filled in and destruction occurs on land. During the next 6 minutes, the tsunami wave changes from a ridge to a trough, causing flood waters to drain and drawback to occur again. This may sweep victims and debris some distance from land. The process repeats as the next wave arrives.
Essay # 5. Scales of Intensity And Magnitude of Tsunami:
As with earthquakes, several attempts have been made to set up scales of tsunami intensity or magnitude to allow comparison between different events.
The first scales used routinely to measure the intensity of tsunami were the Sieberg- Ambraseys scale, used in the Mediterranean Sea and the Imamura-Iida intensity scale, used in the Pacific Ocean.
The latter scale was modified by Soloviev, who calculated the Tsunami intensity I according to the formula:
where Hav is the average wave height along the nearest coast. This scale, known as the Soloviev-Imamura tsunami intensity scale, is used in the global tsunami catalogues compiled by the NGDC/NOAA and the Novosibirsk Tsunami Laboratory as the main parameter for the size of the tsunami.
In 2013, following the intensively studied tsunamis in 2004 and 2011, a new 12 point scale was proposed, the Integrated Tsunami Intensity Scale (ITIS-2012), intended to match as closely as possible to the modified ESI2007 and EMS earthquake intensity scales.
The first scale that genuinely calculated a magnitude for a tsunami, rather than an intensity at a particular location was the ML scale proposed by Murty and Loomis based on the potential energy. Difficulties in calculating the potential energy of the tsunami mean that this scale is rarely used. Abe introduced the tsunami magnitude scale Mt, calculated from,
Mt = a log h + b log R = D
where h is the maximum tsunami-wave amplitude (in m) measured by a tide gauge at a distance R from the epicenter, a, b and D are constants used to make the Mt scale match as closely as possible with the moment magnitude scale.
Essay # 6. Tsunami Warning Sign:
Drawbacks can serve as a brief warning. People who observe drawback (many survivors report an accompanying sucking sound), can survive only if they immediately run for high ground or seek the upper floors of nearby buildings. In 2004, ten-year-old Tilly Smith of Surrey, England, was on Maikhao beach in Phuket, Thailand with her parents and sister, and having learned about tsunamis recently in school, told her family that a tsunami might be imminent. Her parents warned others minutes before the wave arrived, saving dozens of lives. She credited her geography teacher, Andrew Kearney.
In the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami drawback was not reported on the African coast or any other east-facing coasts that it reached. This was because the wave moved downwards on the eastern side of the fault line and upwards on the western side. The western pulse hit coastal Africa and other western areas.
A tsunami cannot be precisely predicted, even if the magnitude and location of an earthquake is known. Geologists, oceano graphers, and seismologists analyse each earthquake and based on many factors may or may not issue a tsunami warning. However, there are some warning signs of an impending tsunami, and automated systems can provide warnings immediately after an earthquake in time to save lives. One of the most successful systems uses bottom pressure sensors, attached to buoys, which constantly monitor the pressure of the overlying water column.
Regions with a high tsunami risk typically use tsunami warning systems to warn the population before the wave reaches land. On the west coast of the United States, which is prone to Pacific Ocean tsunami, warning signs indicate evacuation routes. In Japan, the community is well-educated about earthquakes and tsunamis, and along the Japanese shorelines the tsunami warning signs are reminders of the natural hazards together with a network of warning sirens, typically at the top of the cliff of surroundings hills.
The Pacific Tsunami Warning System is based in Honolulu, Hawaii. It monitors Pacific Ocean seismic activity. A sufficiently large earthquake magnitude and other information triggers a tsunami warning. While the subduction zones around the Pacific are seismically active, not all earthquakes generate tsunami. Computers assist in analysing the tsunami risk of every earthquake that occurs in the Pacific Ocean and the adjoining land masses.
Essay # 7. Questions for Tsunami Preparedness:
Millions of people around the world live in areas at risk for tsunamis, such as Hawaii, Alaska, the US and Canadian coasts, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and India and millions more visit these places every day.
In the event of a tsunami, following are answers to the most commonly asked questions:
1. What is a Tsunami?
A tsunami is a series of ocean waves generated by sudden movements in the sea floor, landslides, or volcanic activity. In the deep ocean, the tsunami wave may only be a few inches high. The tsunami wave may come gently ashore or may increase in height as it gets closer to shore to become a fast moving wall of turbulent water several meters high.
2. Are Tsunamis Common?
Tsunamis are quite rare compared to other hazardous natural events, but they can be just as deadly and destructive. As a result of their rarity, tsunami hazard planning along the US and Canadian west coasts, Alaska and within the Pacific Region is inconsistent. Even in locations with a history of deadly tsunamis, an adequate level of awareness and preparedness is difficult to achieve.
3. Can a Tsunami be prevented?
Although a tsunami cannot be prevented, the effect of a tsunami can be reduced through community preparedness, timely warnings, and effective response. NOAA is leading the world in providing tsunami observations and research. Through innovative programs, NOAA is helping coastal communities prepare for possible tsunamis to save lives and protect property.
NOAA’s Tsunami Warning System (TWS) monitors the Pacific Basin for potential tsunami activity. As part of the TWS, NOAA operates two Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii. The Alaska Tsunami Warning Center serves as the regional Tsunami Warning Center for Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California.
The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center serves as the regional Tsunami Warning Center for Hawaii and as a national/international warning center for tsunamis that pose a Pacific-wide threat. When tsunami activity is detected, NOAA issues tsunami watch, warning, and information bulletins to appropriate emergency officials and the general public by a variety of communication methods.
The warning includes predicted tsunami arrival times at selected coastal communities within the geographic area defined by the maximum distance the tsunami could travel in a few hours. If a significant tsunami is detected, the tsunami warning is extended to the entire Pacific Basin.
Because of the December 2004 tsunami in South Asia, NOAA is expanding the US Tsunami Warning Program. This expansion will increase the current Pacific Ocean network of 6 DART Buoys to 39 in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and the Caribbean Sea, establish an Atlantic Tsunami Warning Center, deploy second generation buoys, and expand the Tsunami Mitigation Program including outreach and education.
Can the Damage be Minimized?
Yes. For example, the State of Hawaii is addressing tsunami risk through the Hazard Education and Awareness Tool (HEAT), a Web site template that uses Google Maps technology, spatial hazard data, and preparedness information to help increase awareness of coastal hazards.
NOAA’s Pacific Services Center used HEAT to develop a tsunami information service that provides residents and visitors convenient, online access to interactive evacuation zone maps, along with the education and awareness information needed to be prepared in the event of a tsunami. HEAT project partners in Hawaii include state and local planning and civil defense officials, the Red Cross and other disaster relief agencies.
What Can You Do?
Develop a Family Disaster Plan. Learn about tsunami risk in your community. Find out if your home, school, workplace or other frequently visited locations are in tsunami hazard areas. Know the height of your street above sea level and its distance from the coast or other high-risk waters. Evacuation orders may be based on these numbers. Find out if your community is Tsunami Ready.
If you are visiting an area at risk from tsunamis, check with the hotel, motel, or campground operators for tsunami evacuation information and how you would be warned.
It is important to know designated escape routes before a warning is issued:
I. Plan an Evacuation Route:
Plan an evacuation route from your home, school, workplace, or any other place you’ll be where tsunamis present a risk. If possible, pick an area 100 feet above sea level or go up to two miles inland, away from the coastline. If you can’t get this high or far, go as high as you can. Every foot inland or upwards may make a difference.
II. Practice your Evacuation Route:
Familiarity may save your life. Be able to follow your escape route at night and during inclement weather. Practicing your plan makes the appropriate response more instinctive, requiring less thinking during an actual emergency situation.
III. Get a NOAA Weather Radio:
Use a NOAA Weather Radio with a tone-alert feature to keep you informed of local watches and warnings. The tone alert feature will warn you of potential danger even if you are not currently listening to local radio or television stations.
IV. Talk to Your Insurance Agent:
Homeowners’ policies do not cover flooding from a tsunami. Ask about the National Flood Insurance Program.
V. Discuss Tsunami Preparedness with Your Family:
Everyone should know what to do in case all family members are not together. Discussing the dangers of tsunamis and your evacuation plans ahead of time will help reduce fear and anxiety, and let everyone know how to respond. Review flood safety and preparedness measures with your family.
VI. Prepare the essentials:
Prepare a supply kit equipped to sustain you and your family for about a week and make sure it is readily accessible in case you need to take quick action.
VII. Have a Pet Plan:
Sheltering your pet or evacuating it with you can have an effect on your overall plan. You may need to take special steps to make sure your pet is safe before, during, and after the disaster.
VIII. Heed Warnings:
When local and state officials issue warnings and evacuation notices, adhere to their directions and implement your disaster plan immediately.
IX. Make your community Tsunami Ready:
The Tsunami Ready Program, developed by NOAA’s National Weather Service, is designed to help cities, towns, counties, universities and other large sites in coastal areas reduce the potential for disastrous tsunami- related consequences.
X. Tsunami Ready helps community leaders and emergency managers strengthen their local operations. Tsunami Ready communities are better prepared to save lives through better planning, education and awareness. Communities have fewer fatalities and property damage if they plan before a tsunami arrives. No community is tsunami proof, but Tsunami Ready can help minimize loss to your community.
Essay # 8. Research on Tsunami Disaster Prevention:
Looking at the history globally Japan has suffered from repeated tsunami-caused damage, and massive tsunamis are anticipated as a result of mega-thrust earthquakes such as the Tokai, Tonankai and Nankai earthquakes. PARI and other institutions have conducted research on tsunami disaster prevention and mitigation. However, the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami resulted in unprecedented damage.
When considering the possibility of giant tsunamis in the future such as those in 2011, further research and development are needed to save people’s lives, reduce economic loss, and make early restoration and reconstruction possible. This research theme therefore involves engineering oriented research and development in regard to tsunami propagation and inundation, stability of structures against tsunamis, combined earthquake/tsunami disasters, etc.
Areas for future research:
(i) Research on combined Earthquake/Tsunami Disasters:
Regarding a combined earthquake/tsunami disaster caused by a large mega-thrust earthquake, we investigate disaster mechanisms on the basis of laboratory experiments and develop numerical models for disaster prediction. The experimental studies involve the development of facilities combining a geotechnical centrifuge and a tsunami flume.
(ii) Research on developing structural measures for tsunami disaster mitigation and early restoration:
We develop countermeasures to control damage of structures caused by tsunamis exceeding the design parameters, performance verification methods to predict structure displacement, and hardware technologies to reduce tsunami energy,
(iii) Research on developing software for tsunami disaster mitigation and early restoration:
In addition to a real-time tsunami hazard mapping technology, we are developing an evacuation simulator to ensure early evacuation. We also explore ship motions induced by tsunami attacks, and consider safer procedures for ship evacuation. Moreover, we review scenario creation techniques including early recovery of ports, and promote practical use of such scenarios.
Activities in this Area:
1. Hydraulic model experiments were carried out to study the mechanisms of destruction of breakwaters in order to establish resilient structures to tsunamis higher than the design tsunami, given the damage caused by tsunamis in the Great East Japan Earthquake. At the same time, model experiments were carried out to examine the mechanisms in the destruction of embankments, parapets, coastal dikes, and tsunami evacuation buildings. Furthermore, we carried out model experiments to study the behavior of and countermeasures against containers and other objects washed away by tsunamis.
2. The mathematical simulation model of Storm Surge and Tsunami Simulator in Oceans and Coastal areas (STOC) developed by PARI were improved to enable computation of wave breaking of tsunamis and scouring and topographical changes to ports caused by tsunamis. The model was successfully validated in comparison with the tsunamis striking in Kuji Port and Hachinohe Port especially at the catastrophic event in 2011.
Furthermore, we elucidated the behavior of ships affected by the tsunami at Kashima Port through analysis of Automatic Identification System (AIS) data and identification of issues surrounding calculations of ship drift through numerical simulations.
3. In regard to mitigating damage from tsunamis, we implemented instant tsunami inundation forecasting technology (real time tsunami hazard mapping), using offshore tsunami measurement data acquired through GPS-equipped buoys, in a pilot site of Nagoya Port. We demonstrated that it is possible to forecast inundation area in Nagoya Port approximately two minutes after measurement of the peak of the first tsunami wave by the GPS-equipped buoys. These results were reported to the investigative commission on utilizing offshore wave detection systems set up by the Chubu Regional Bureau.
4. In regard to restoration and rehabilitation after being struck by tsunamis, simulations of the expected tsunami propagation, inundation, and drifting of ships and containers were carried out using STOC, in Shimizu Port. Simulations took the subsidence of breakwaters into account in predicting potential damage caused by tsunamis, based on Cabinet Office assumptions of what a Nankai Trough Earthquake would be like.
5. Development an evacuation simulator enabling analyses of the behaviour of agent models that simulate the evacuation of people through modeling of the intelligent behavior of people. This will enable clarification of the relationship between the inundation delaying effect of tsunami protection facilities and evacuation. Moreover, the “Tenth International Workshop on Coastal Disaster Prevention” was held in Santiago, Chile, on December 11, 2012, jointly organized with the cooperation of the Coastal Development Institute of Technology, Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Pontifical Catholic University of Chile and the Ministry of Public Works of Chile. Information was shared on the current status of numerical tsunami computation technology, countermeasures against tsunamis, etc., and discussions were held on prevention of future tsunami disasters.
Furthermore, this workshop was held in conjunction with the “Second Japan-Chile Symposium on Tsunami Disaster Mitigation” which was an outreach activity of the SATREPS (Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development) Chile project.
6. We have led the SATREPS Chile project since 2011, collaborating with Kansai University, the Japan Agency for Marine- Earth Science and Technology, Yamaguchi University and other universities, institutions and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism in Japan as well as Chilean universities, institutions and administrative bodies, that was funded by JST and JICA. Technical support in tsunami computation technology was also given to Chilean researchers and engineers as another activity of the project.