Here is an essay on ‘Wildlife Population’ for class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Wildlife Population’ especially written for school and college students.
Essay on Wildlife Population
- Essay on the Introduction to Wildlife Population
- Essay on the Stability/Structure of Wildlife Population
- Essay on the Reintroduction to Population-Stability
- Essay on the Management of Vermin Population
Essay # 1. Introduction to Wildlife Population:
The group of individuals of each species forms its own population. Population is, therefore, an assemblage of individuals of a particular species growing or living together in one habitat and show many important group properties such as density, rate of birth (natality), death (mortality), competition and associations among members of same species (intraspecific) or different species (interspecific) etc. or, “the number of individuals of a species living in an area is called population of that species”.
More accurate from wildlife point of view, it may be defined as “Productivity added to the number of original individuals is the population.”
Population depends upon the interaction of two forces viz. Breeding-potential (capacity to produce offspring irrespective of their survival to maturity) and Environmental-resistance (various factors existing in the environment which resist the expansion of species such as predation from enemies, unfavourable weather, diseases, starvation, accidents and non-breeding; and expressed as P = BP-E R where P = population, BP = Breeding-potential, ER = Environmental-resistance).
Populations show a tendency to rise rapidly in the early stages then more slowly, finally reaching a stable level. This is known as “S” or Sigmoid curve of population.
Essay # 2. Stability/Structure of Wildlife Population:
In nature, the stability of any wildlife population depends upon the balance of biotic-potential (the maximum growth rate of wildlife population which is obtained in ideal favourable condition of the habitat) and environmental-resistance. If biotic-potential is optimum and the environmental-resistance is in the same ratio, wildlife population becomes static (there will be neither growth nor loss).
But if biotic-potential is of high quality and environmental-resistance is less, the population will increase always. On the contrary; when biotic-potential is less and environmental-resistance is more; there will be declination in the population.
In other words, it can be said that when these two opposite forces remain in balance, the population remains static; and when they become imbalanced, there is gain/loss in wildlife population depending upon the condition.
(A) Harvest for Population Stability:
Wildlife is a renewable crop of the land. Like any other crop, it can be increased if properly managed or may become scarce or disappear, if not adequately cared for. The usual purpose of management is to produce the largest possible crop of game for harvesting, compatible with other important land-uses such as agriculture and forestry.
For scientific management, wildlife biologists are employed to study the life-histories of important game species and their actual relationship to each other and to their surroundings. The results of their studies provide a firm, factual basis for administrative action and the management practices to be introduced.
The wildlife crop may be divided into two categories such as:
Which must be large enough to produces an abundant crop for the next year.
Which can and should be, harvested annually.
The production of this crop depends upon many factors mainly as:
(i) Protection of the Breeding-Stock:
Wildlife has three main enemies like man, natural-predator and disease. Hence, good management requires the effective control of hunting and trapping. Natural predators also take a share of the game crop but normally they take mostly the eggs or young ones and the foolish or sick individuals and, thus, maintaining natural-balance as per the carrying-capacity. Disease can also reduce the amount of wildlife, but is seldom a serious cause of loss except when a species becomes over-abundant or is concentrated in large numbers in particular areas.
(ii) Proper Regulation of the Annual-Harvest:
In every country, wildlife has decreased markedly in abundance with the advance of civilization until hunting was effectively controlled and regulations enforced. Wildlife conservation means wise use of wildlife. Thus, the purpose of game laws should be to permit the maximum possible harvest of the annual crop without depleting the breeding-stock on which next year’s production depends.
(iii) Good Food & Shelter for Wildlife:
Food and shelter are two prime requisites for life, both for animals as well as humans. Each species has its particular requirements for food and shelter which is different from any other. Tiger, leopard, wild boar, jungle fowl, partridges and quail may all occupy the same jungle, but except in search of water, they seldom are found in abundance in exactly the same type of vegetation and topography.
When the precise reasons for this have to be found out, the manager will know what small changes to introduce in the management of the forest so as to produce more of one species or the other. It is known, however, that second growth forests containing many species of trees, shrubs and with weedy patches or openings here and there, produce a much greater abundance of wildlife than do dense, extensive forests largely made up for one or two species.
It is also known that a hundred acre cultivated field all of one crop and containing no weedy or jungle patches will produce less partridges than ten, separate ten-acre fields surrounded by hedges, irrigation ditches or jungle.
Hence, one of the first steps in wildlife management is to arrange for an annual census of game in abundance. One of the main duties of wildlife staff should be to conduct periodical census or species in respective areas.
Population-dynamics is the studies of analysis of the changes in the numbers of animals in wildlife- population at a particular time. In true sense, such changes in population are not so simple because the growing members in the population start breeding attaining adulthood. In such conditions, the growth-rate in population is just like compound interest.
To study the change in wildlife- population, generally, it is represented in the form of Population- growth Curve or Growth-form. Suppose, in a favourable condition but empty space, one pair of birds is kept with the assumption that it produces two young’s (one male and one female) per year.
In this way, in one year the number will be four, in second year eight, in third year sixteen and so on. Hence, in the beginning, the growth-rate of the population is slow and in later years-(time) it is faster and faster. But a time comes when it reaches at the climax. This climax comes when the population becomes at par with the carrying- capacity of the habitat.
After this, environmental- resistance starts and under decimating factors, the growth in number of animal becomes seized. If the number of the animal becomes more than the carrying-capacity of the habitat, then firstly there will be loss and afterwards due to balance in birth and mortality, the number will be almost alike.
If there is balance in biotic-potential and environmental-resistance, the population-growth-curve will be like sigmoid nature assuming that the carrying-capacity of the habitat remains alike.
It is an ideal condition and by comparing this, the condition of any other wildlife population may be assessed. Such sigmoid curve cannot be obtained, if biotic-potential is not systematized or if the population number is not dependent upon the carrying-capacity of the habitat etc.
Hence, the curve of population may be of the following types:
(i) Sigmoid Curve (Sigmoid Growth-Form):
In this type, population has a tendency to rise considerably rapidly in the early stages. Later on, this rapid rise slows down until a stable level is reached. Since the shape of the graph of this stage comes like “S” (Sigma), is called as Sigmoid-curve or Sigmoid Growth-form as shown in figure.
(ii) Flat-Type Curve (Geometric Growth-Form):
In this type, population is more or less static i.e. there are no notable rises or falls. Its graph is flat viz.”J” shaped and hence also called as “j”- Shaped Growth-form as shown in figure.
(iii) Irruptive-Type Curve:
In this type of curve, there is a sudden upward rise as a result of favourable conditions.
(iv) Fluctuating-Type Curve:
In such type of curve, there are slow rises in the curve by periodical slow declines.
(D) Annual Fluctuation in Number:
When any wildlife population at any habitat becomes established, it should not be understood that there is no fluctuation in the number of the animal. In real sense; in that place where carrying-capacity is almost static, there is also annual and seasonal fluctuation in the number of animal as per the availability of food, inherent endocrine cycle, plant phenology, breeding-season etc.
(E) Turn-Over Rate:
When it is said that wildlife population is static, it does not mean that it is totally inactive because in each population birth and death is continued and hence new members come in place of matured and old ones. The rate at which new individuals come in place of old ones, it is called as Turn-over rate.
It is generally expressed in the beginning of breeding-season in percentage of young ones in respect of total number of the animal. For example, if 100 animals of a species are living in any year before beginning of breeding-season (or at the end of hunting-season) there are 75 young ones and 25 adult, then the turn-over rate of that species will be called as 75%.
The turn-over rate is the symbol of productivity of a wildlife-population. If the turn-over rate is high, then the productivity of that population is high and as a result the yield will be more from that population.
(F) Manipulation (For Harvesting Purposes):
The fluctuation in the number of wildlife population results gain and loss to the wildlife manager as well as society. When the number rises, there is more yield which is gain (benefit); but when the number decreases, there is less yield which is not only loss but also hamper the necessities of the society.
Hence, it is essential that the number of wildlife population should be kept in such high stage that it may give maximum yield and there is minimum possibility of losses. This is called as “Wildlife-population Manipulation”.
In other words, population-manipulation is that work through which the number of wildlife population may be kept at such high stage by minimizing the fluctuation in population so that the yield (benefit/gain) to be harvested from the wild animals may be taken maximally on sustained basis. To achieve this objective, the condition of the habitat and wildlife-population is studied deeply.
By improving both of them, the density of the population and turn-over rate are enhanced as well as it is also tried to minimize the sources of losses by studying the relations between the wild animals and humans of that very habitat.
For this, it is necessary to execute the programme (project) preparing the requisite changes in the relations among structure of wildlife-population and its (population) dynamics. It must be assessed time to time observing the result.
Manipulation may be categorized in the following kinds:
(i) Manipulation in Population-Structure:
For this purpose, there should be studies on the distribution of available species of a particular area. It should be tried to minimize the vermin species, if available. General predators should not be considered as vermin because they are an important link in the food-chain.
The meaning to say is that the ecosystem should not be hampered on the basis of vermin animals. The animals which are on the verge of extinction should be conserved and the animals should be introduced/reintroduced which are extinct from that area.
(a) To bring normalcy in the ecosystem, the wildlife manager should focus on that animal which is to be managed. For this, there should be studies on the density, age-distribution and ratio of males and females after getting census of that species.
(b) By studying the age-ratio of wildlife population, the manager should increase the density of the population as well as he should do such changes so that there should be maximum number of breeding animals (breeding-stock). For the purpose, the puberty age may be brought sooner by nutritious food and medicines. There should be also ban on hunting of such animals by observing body shape and position of horn/antler.
This will give another benefit improving age-weight ratio and getting more meat due to killing the old animals.
(c) The manager should also study on the nature of forming male-female pair in the population assessing whether the male makes pair with only one female in a year or from more than one female. The improvement in male-female ratio can be brought by studying the nature of pairing. If male forms pair in a year only with one female, the male/female ratio will be equal.
If males are more in number, they should be introduced (migrated) in such places where its number is less. If females are more in number; the males should be introduced, if space available, from other places.
If one male forms pair with different females, the breeding- capacity of the adult males should be increased by providing nutritious food etc. so that they can breed successfully the total adult females. If the ratio of male-female is to bring unequal, the females can be made temporarily neuter or the males may be migrated elsewhere.
(ii) Manipulation in Population-Dynamics:
In order to manipulate population-dynamics, affects on the birth-rate, mortality-rate and migration are to be considered properly.
(a) To manipulate birth rate; male-female ratio, age-ratio and the breeding capacity of males and females are affected because the crowd in community or population also affects the birth-rate of young ones due to imbalance between scarcity of sufficient nutritious food per animal and adrenal-pituitary system. Hence, these factors should also be taken into consideration.
(b) To manipulate mortality-rate; there should be studies on the factors such as breeding-potentiality, productivity, decimating factors etc. due to which the mortality-rate is affected and then such factors may be increased or decreased as per the objectives of the management. Therefore, to decrease the mortality-rate; the factors due to which mortality is being caused, should be minimized/ controlled.
For example, the animals should be healthy and free from the disease so that they can resist the attack of worms, germs and parasites; for this, they should be managed not be come in contact with the livestock to avoid infections. To avoid the possibilities of accidents, the forest should be managed and protected from fire by control-burning and creating fire-lines.
Hunting should be controlled/regulated. But if the mortality-rate is to be increased; then only hunting factor, out of all other mortality factors, should be encouraged. In this way, the population dynamics may be controlled by affecting the causing factors of the mortality.
(c) Migration (movement) in the animals also affects the population-dynamics. Hence, if the number of the animals is to be increased at a particular area; the migration of the animal from that area should be prohibited by fencing it. Along with obstacles, the habit should be managed attractively to check migration; for example, if the migration of animal is due to scarcity of water, the habitat should be managed with waterholes etc.
To increase the number of the animal, it may be introduced by bringing from other places. On the contrary; to decrease the number, migration should be encouraged or some animals may be caught and sent to the other suitable places.
(iii) Manipulation in Relations among Factors of the Population:
The manipulation of the animal population may be done in many ways. For each condition, a new technique may be applied but its application depends upon the sentiments of the related people of the society, knowledge of wildlife manager, availability of the fund to execute the programme, skilled labourers, natural condition of the animal species and the capacity to be effected by the treatments done in that habitat.
The project/ programme should be framed keeping in mind certain things like available sources and animal population, habitat and sentimental as well as natural boundaries of the related human society so that output of the result may be optimum.
Essay # 3. Reintroduction to Population-Stability:
In nature, the stability of any wildlife population depends upon the balance of biotic-potential and environmental-resistance. If biotic-potential and environmental-resistance balances each other, wildlife population becomes static. But if biotic-potential is more and environmental-resistance is less, the population will increase and vice-versa.
Hence, it is clear that when these two opposite forces remain in balance, the population remains static; otherwise, there is gain/loss in wildlife population as per the situation.
Today, many wildlife species are threatened by continuing habitat destruction, reduced geographical range, low total numbers and severe fragmentation of population. If these endangered species are to escape extinction; imaginative and dynamic management measures are required in order to reverse the processes of decline and set their populations on an upward trend in the context of restored ecological-balance.
In cases where stricter protection and removal of deleterious influences such as domestic grazing etc. appear inadequate, rehabilitation management by reintroduction or restocking may be called for.
These measures are particularly suggested in cases where it is necessary to improve the distribution of a species by establishing new populations or where a severely decimated population will go extinct unless its number can be artificially boosted.
Reintroduction means the transplanting of individuals of an animals or plant into an area within its normal geographical range, from which it has disappeared or become locally extinct within historic times, usually as a result of human activities.
Restocking (reintroduction) implies the movement of individuals into an area of native habitat where numbers of that species have been severely reduced with the object of building up a viable population. It should be noted that introduction, which is the planting of a species in an area outside of its normal geographical range, is accompanied by many ecological hazards and should not normally be contemplated as a rehabilitation measure.
The introduction of an exotic species in an area is invariably fraught with difficulties and may be inherently dangerous to the local fauna and flora. In Mysore, the attempt to introduce European Fallow deer and Angora rabbits proved a failure, mainly supposed that light coloration were against them when it came to escaping from natural enemies.
On the other hand, several examples of the too-successful introduction of an exotic species can be cited such as introduction of rabbit in Australia from Great Britain became the biggest pest of the country (Australia), red deer introduced into New Zealand from Scotland have multiplied so rapidly that they became a serious pest to plantations and had to be kept down by shooting, the mangoose introduced into the West Indies resulted in such rapid increase in its numbers that nothing was safe from it, and the cheetal introduced into the Andamans by Bonnington in 1918 became a menace to forest regeneration and plantations.
One of the notable attempts to introduce exotic into India was by late Maharaja Scindia of Gwalior to introduce African lions into his forest in 1920 keeping three pairs at Sheopur near Shivpuri enclosed within high-walled enclosure and fed only on live cattle so that they might not lose their ability to kill game (wilderness-character).
But after releasing them in pair, the first pair came back to their temporary home and fell victims to tiger which used to haunt the area attracted by the roaring of the lions. Another pair developed cattle- lifting habits and had to be destroyed.
The others wandered away and nothing definite was known of their fate. Thus, they were altogether unsuccessful nature of the experiment. The consensus was that the lions were unable to survive in areas where the tiger was originally established.
Hence, the need for systematic ecological studies; population surveys, mortality and breeding data, predator prey relationship facts etc. in order to ascertain the real conditions and circumstances governing their decline, is very urgent and essential. A scientific approach is essential for sound wildlife management in which the improvement of game habitat is one of the most important measures, if we are to succeed in our handling of the problems of dynamic manipulation of species.
Individuals for reintroduction or restocking usually come from one or two sources:
(i) They may be obtained by capturing from a healthy or over-abundant wild population in another part of the species’ range which is referred as translocation.
(ii) Alternatively, the reintroduced stock may be supplied from a captive source such as a zoo or a special captive breeding/release programme for that species.
An example of translocation is provided by the recent reintroduction of Great Indian Rhinoceros into Dudhwa National Park, U.P. from wild caught stock in Assam and Nepal. The Government of India Crocodile Breeding and Management Project assisted by UNDP/FAO illustrate a large captive breeding/release programme.
Aims of Reintroduction:
(i) The general aim of reintroduction or restocking may be to increase total numbers of a species in the wild so as to improve the genetic base on which future populations may be built. Clearly, this aim will only be fulfilled by the release of captive-raised stock.
(ii) In case where all remaining members of a species are in a single population, reintroduction may be employed to increase the number of separate self-perpetuating populations, thus spreading the survival risk from calamities such as fatal epidemic disease, a destructive cyclone or fire etc.
The single species population of the Asiatic lion in Gir provides an example. Genetically, a numbers of small population increase the opportunity for local adaptation which may contribute to ultimate survival. Genetic-drift can be countered by occasional exchange between populations.
(iii) In order to ensure adaptive interaction of a species with the broadest possible spectrum of ecological factors and promote genetic vigour, it is desirable that its populations should be widely distributed throughout its original geographical range. Thus, reintroduction may be employed to create new populations in parts of the range from which the species has totally disappeared.
One aim of the translocation of rhinos from Assam to Dudhwa was to re-establish the species in the central part of its former range, thus counter-balancing the present over-concentration of rhino populations in the eastern extremity of a range which originally extended from the Hindu Kush to Burma.
(iv) Further aim of reintroduction may be to restore an animal to a community in order to redress imbalance resulting from the vacation of its niche when it disappeared from the area.
For example, the decline of the swamp deer in Dudhwa appears to be partially due to the absence of a bulk feeder in the grazing succession to facilitate its access to the preferred early growth stages low in the grass sward. By reintroducing the rhino, which trims down taller growth stages, it is anticipated that the swamp deer will benefit from a restoration of ecological balance in the grazing community.
Principles of Reintroduction:
Once it has been decided that a reintroduction programme appears to be the best re-habitation method for a particular species, the following scientific principles to be applied are important since neglect of these principles have resulted in some reintroduction disasters both in India and elsewhere.
(i) The site chosen must be within the known geographical range of the species from historical times, thus ensuring the suitability of climate, mineral and parasite regimes and other broad ecological factors.
(ii) Causes of earlier extinction in the target area must be precisely established and their current absence and inability to suddenly reappear ensured. These may include management malpractices as well as ecological factors. The banning of set nylon fishing nets, in which crocodiles drown from waters in which captive bred stock are released is an example.
(iii) Type and quality of management are important. National Park status usually being preferable to sanctuary status for a reintroduction site. Reintroduction of the species in question must be compatible with management plan objectives.
(iv) In addition to the absence of negative factors, the quality and quantity of suitable habitat available in the proposed area must be carefully evaluated bearing in mind the possibility of changes since extinction took place.
(v) It should be ensured that animals cannot wander out of the target area.
(vi) The attitude of local people to the new species should be evaluated and education programme should be arranged, if it is felt necessary.
(vii) Stock for reintroduction should be of the closest available race or type to the original population in the area.
(viii) Attention must be paid to the size and composition of groups released.
(ix) Known local diseases should be guarded against by inoculation where appropriate, prior to release.
(x) Follow-up of released animals is a vital long-term measure to monitor such factors as distribution in relation to food and water supply, health, numbers and reproductive success. Only by regular monitoring can, the effectiveness of a reintroduction, be assessed and any problem detected in good time, so as to allow appropriate remedial action to be applied. Inadequate long-term follow-up appears to have been responsible for the ultimate failure of the reintroduction of Asiatic lion to Chandraprabha in Uttaranchal.
Potential Use of Reintroduction in India:
The present situation with a number of Indian endangered species suggests reintroduction as an appropriate management approach.
(i) Reintroduction of Great Indian Rhinoceros into Dudhwa National Park has already been taken up by the Government of India.
(ii) The Manipur Brow-antlered deer (Sangai) which is highly endangered sub-species consisting of a single population in Keibul Lamjao National Park swamp, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of the species ecology for the establishment of additional breeding populations.
(iii) The Pygmy hog, a highly endangered ungulate of North-Eastern India, has already been subjected to attempts at captive- breeding/ release.
(iv) The Asiatic lion which has been confined to the population in the Gir, is another Indian large mammal vulnerable to the problems of single population. Recognizing the need for a second “home”, the IBWL approved reintroduction in Chandraprabha sanctuary in Uttaranchal and a group of three animals released there in 1958 multiplied to eleven by 1965 but after this suddenly disappeared.
There is, thus, still a passing need to establish several breeding-populations with its studies. It is not easy to successfully translocate large cats and a much larger area than Chandraprabha, with ample wild prey, will have to be identified in order to minimize risks to domestic stock.
(v) There has been revived interest in reintroducing Cheetah to India which is extinct from the country around 1950. Since, it is impossible to obtain stocks of Asiatic race; the closely related African Cheetah will probably form the basis of translocation programme.
(vi) The rare Snow-leopard is yet another large cat which requires rehabilitation in the wild.
(vii) Among India’s endangered birds, captive-breeding/release programmes are already in an experimental phase for several species of Pheasant and the White-winged wood duck.
(viii) There is plan to restock freshwater Turtles in the Ganges.
Ecological Principles to Consider in Introduction of Exotics:
(i) Every Habitat Tends to be Full:
Though in nature, there are few vacant spaces in natural communities, however, the communities tend to change so completely in the habitats that they will no longer support the animal. Thus, the space alone does not constitute a vacancy. Nature usually has provided and stocked her habitats. Hence, such thing regarding vacancy/space is to be studied before introduction/reintroduction.
(ii) Each Species of Animal has a Specific Set of Tolerances:
All animals have evolved as per the environmental demands to suit, interact and meet the impact of their environments through morphological, physiological and behavioral adaptations’. When they are put into situations in which they are not adapted, they will die.
Hence, ecological homologues are probably goods candidates for introductions. (An ecological homologue is an animal or plant with an identical counterpart often found on another continent. Such animals are often look-alikes, have the same habits and occupy very similar habitats). But in place of introducing homologue, efforts should go towards improving conditions for the native form.
(iii) Plastic Species have Higher Possibilities:
Generally plastic species have higher probabilities of succeeding in habitats unlike their own than non-plastic forms. (A plastic species is one that has large variation in its appearance as indicated by large numbers of races).
(iv) Competition is the Inevitable Result of Stocking Closely Related forms in the Same Habitat:
When there is limited or in short supply of the resource in the environment, the result of individuals of the species will be either elimination of one of the species or perhaps an adjustment in their numbers so that some kind of equilibrium is reached where both populations operate at low numbers. Usually one or the other fails.
The native species can usually be figured to have the advantage in such a competitive situation because it evolved in place and is the result of a part of that environment. Hence, the greatest probability is for failure of the introduced species in competition between closely related animals.
(v) Animals from Complex to Simple Communities have Higher Chance:
Animals taken from complex to simple communities have higher probabilities of success than reverse transfers. (The successful introductions of animals and plants into farmlands are much simplified in form and in numbers of living organisms. Natural communities are much more complex than farmlands).
Reintroduction is usually undertaken as extreme “last resort” measures in the rehabilitation of a threatened species.
Essay # 4. Management of Vermin Population:
Vermin is obnoxious, injurious, mischievous or disgusting animal of small size and common occurrence and difficult to control. These include various insects (flies, lice, bed-bugs etc.), various mammals (rats etc.) and sometimes birds (hawks and owls etc.). In wildlife management, the term is restricted to mammals and birds which are injurious to crop, wildlife etc.
Generally applied to such mammals as rats, mice and such pests, but sometimes animals which become too numerous and cause destruction are declared as Vermin such as wild dogs and crows.
Among common species of vermin in India are wild dogs, pigs, leopards, hyaenas, civet-cats, porcupines etc. In fact, the list is quite large enough to ensure adequate protection to man and his animals. The Schedule V of Wild Life (Protection) Act, is enlisted exclusively vermin species subject to be changeable (inclusion/exclusion) time to time.
A species declared as vermin may be shot or destroyed at sight but it does not mean that once classed as vermin is always vermin. The criterion is the harm done and vermin lists should be subject to modification and revision. A species may be classed as vermin in some areas or for certain periods and may then be taken off the vermin list; such conditions indicate an improvement in the situation.
The leopard, for instance, is classed as vermin in almost the whole of India, though undeservedly so in the opinion of some authorities, but there is no reason why it should everywhere and always remain as such.
In any case, it is necessary to distinguish between an individual which is a persistent marauder and one which occasionally preys on domestic cattle, pigs or poultry-booth of them may belong to the class of predator but both do not deserve to be classified as vermin.
Control of vermin (which preys on birds or animals) is one of the important features of habitat-control and improvement as well as conservation of the breeding-stock. In Changa Manga mulberry and Sisoo plantations (in Pakistan) game-birds were successfully introduced.
However, the jackal came up as a serious menace as it started destroying young and nesting birds. The problem was solved by control of jackal. In the same way; it is possible to control the destructive mammals such as martens, mongooses, jungle-cats and civet-cats etc. all of which prey on young and nesting birds.
In some areas, payment is made on the production of dead animals which prey on the favoured animals. However, this method has proved to be defective as under this payment was made for parts of dead animals also. The villagers used to produce different parts of a single dead animal and claim payments separately.
Moreover, some over-zealous people disturbed the habitat in their search for the predator. Hence, the bonus-system or payment of rewards for production of the dead animal or its parts is of limited value and direct- control measures are advocated. Whatever methods are employed to destroy crop-raiders, predators or vermin; the minimum requirement is that they should be first judged that whether it’s good is outweighed by the harm it does or not.
The method, applied for destroying, should be efficient and within the limit of human-treatment of animals. Man must be always mindful of his unlimited powers over the rest of creation and exercise those powers judiciously with moderating attitude.
For instance; the application of virus disease, myxomatosis, to control the rabbit in Europe and England was much criticized because the infected rabbits suffered a lot wandering as about half blind and deaf with swollen bodies and faces before dying showing inhuman approach of mankind.