Here is a compilation of essays on ‘Wildlife Management’ for class 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12. Find paragraphs, long and short essays on ‘Wildlife Management’ especially written for school and college students.
Essay on Wildlife Management
- Essay on the Introduction to Wildlife Management
- Essay on the History of Wildlife Conservation/Management
- Essay on the Need of Wildlife Management/Conservation
- Essay on the Aims of Wildlife Management
- Essay on Wildlife Management Plan
- Essay on the Relationship between the Components of Wildlife Management
- Essay on the Problems in Wildlife Conservation & Management
1. Essay on the Introduction to Wildlife Management:
We know that wildlife is a renewable natural resource and hence, with proper management and care or under normal natural circumstances, will reproduce itself.
Natural resources are the things provided by nature to human for their use. Natural resources can be subdivided into renewable and non-renewable resources. It also draws a line between those that are constantly and continuously restored or reproduced by ongoing natural processes and those that cannot viz. living or non-living.
For example; coal, minerals and petroleum are non-living or non-renewable natural resources and if exploited at the increasing rate are likely to end more sooner never to reoccur in the near too distant future. On the other hand, wildlife is renewable natural resource; and with proper management and care or under normal natural circumstances, will reproduce itself.
As long as this earth remains Intact, we can continue to hunt. However, the boundaries between the two resources are not fixed and determinate all the renewable and non-renewable resources depend upon the complex cyclic flow of non-living and living materials through the ecosystem.
All the renewable resources depend upon this flow of non-living materials for sustaining life. If the flow of nitrogen, phosphorus, carbon dioxide, water, air and iron are abruptly stopped, the renewable resource also can no longer be regarded as renewable. Thus, here is the importance of ecosystem and balance of nature and it forms the main principle of our conservation and development strategy.
The protection of environment or the nature is itself linked with the future of human race. So, the scope of wildlife management is very vast. From the view point of an economist, wildlife management includes efficient utilization of the natural resources to the maximum human benefit, through the process of scientific studies of the population of these animals and their habitat pattern.
In fine, we can say that wildlife management is the judicious use of the wildlife resources towards the attainment of scientific, ecological, economical, ethical, aesthetic and recreational objectives for the benefit of human-beings and for the improvement of nature, upon which all the components of ecosystem depend.
It also includes planning and studying of habitat and behaviours of wild animal’s population. Thus, wildlife management is the science and art of manipulation of structure, dynamics and relations of the wild populations, its habitats and the concerned people in order to achieve specific human goals by means of wildlife resource.
According to “Wildlife Management Techniques” a book edited by Robert H. Giles (1984) “Wildlife Management is the science and art of changing the characteristics and interactions of habitats, wild populations, and such in order to achieve specific human goals by means of wildlife resource. These goals may frequently be sport-recreation, but may also include or be restricted to aesthetic, economic and ecological goals. Those working in the area of wildlife management are ultimately involved in the manipulation of the complex man-land-animal triad”.
Further Giles (1969) expanded on Leopold’s definition by stating “Wildlife Management is the science and art of changing the characteristics and interactions of habitats, wild animal population, and men in order to achieve specific human goals by means of the wildlife resource”.
According to Indian Forest Records (1965), “Wildlife Management is a branch of conservation which handles wildlife as a renewable natural resource. Concerned primarily with production, it also undertakes control measures that will preserve a species or hold its population in bounds. Wildlife forms an integral part of the land and hence wildlife management involves a type of land-use.”
On ecological basis, “Wildlife Management is an ecologic science, the relation of an organism to its environment including other living things that co-inhabit the same basic resources of soil, water, vegetation, and atmosphere”.
The scientific approach of wildlife management includes the observation, hypothesis and application of the tested principles of the hypothesis for the better management objectives. The art of Wildlife Management includes the natural aspects of it, which directly emanates from our sub-conscious mind and hearts and which work on the scientific observations and mould them in such a way that more human desires are satisfied.
The scientific method is a widely accepted and recognized approach to Wildlife Management.
The six basic components of scientific methods are:-
Firstly, it is to observe the things clearly.
Based on the observations, some tentative conclusions are drawn and explanations for the observation are made. The hypothesis is a statement of the problem whose essence is a general principle or relation of cause and effect.
(iii) Test of the Hypothesis:
The hypothesis is tested scientifically.
(iv) Religion and Science:
The basic difference between religion and science lies in the fact that religion gives innumerable wrong hypothesis whereas science only gives tested and correct one.
(v) Interpretations of results.
(vi) Conclusion and reporting of the results.
All these are kept in mind when scientific research is carried on upon wild animals.
From Gile’s definition, it is clear that there is slight difference in objectives between wildlife conservation and wildlife management. In wildlife conservation, the objective is that the wildlife is to be conserved in such a way that it may remain in the nature in peak status. The benefits meeting through the wildlife are met in this condition also but to get the benefit is not the main objective rather the main objective is to maintain natural-balance.
In wildlife management, there is conservation of wildlife but along with this they are also managed in such way that they can meet the specific objectives of human-beings. Hence, in wildlife management, the wildlife resource is managed along with conservation in such a way that the specific benefits may be obtained from them.
The definition of Giles is vast and denotes towards the broadness and difficulties of the subject (wildlife management). Hence, it is essential to clear the different components of the definition. According to him, Wildlife Management is the science as well as art.
It is the science up to the boundary in which there is long time detailed studies and observation of life and ecology of wildlife to get scientific records, to formulate principles and research is carried out; and on these basis the system of management is evolved (estimated) in such a way that by applying these at different places, the specific goal may be achieved.
But when this theoretical knowledge or the system based upon this is used along with the different technologies of land-uses and human-behaviours; the art of wildlife management starts. Different wildlife managers at different places on the basis of applying their capacity of art can get different types of results. The definition also says that wildlife management is done for the specific goals of human-beings.
Therefore, it is essential that the benefit, which is expected from the wildlife, should be already fixed and then the planning of management should be planned so that the specific goal may be achieved; otherwise the management will be aimless and its evaluation will be also impossible.
There is also an important part of the definition that though the management is to be done for wildlife but there are two aspects of wildlife such as its habitat and related people. The main objective of the Wildlife Management is to establish favourable and lovely balance among these three aspects (wildlife, habitat and people) by manipulating their structure, dynamics and relations.
These three aspects are wildlife population itself, its habitat (which includes food, water, space, cover, shelter etc.) and related people who remain in and around the habitats or often come there. Requisite manipulation or change is essential for successful management of wildlife by seeing that as to what type of attitude the people have towards wildlife.
In brief, it can be said that in Wildlife Management; the planning or project for the improvement in wildlife status and for enhancement in its population, can be formulated by thinking the total ecosystem of wildlife and doing requisite favourable manipulation in it so that specific goal may be achieved.
Hence, it is clear that there are three aspects of Wildlife Management viz. wildlife itself (wildlife-population), its habitat and the related people. The management or conservation of wildlife is possible only by establishing the relations among all these three components and for this the managers should have detailed knowledge about the structure, dynamics and relations of these components.
2. Essay on the History of Wildlife Conservation/Management:
The history of wildlife conservation in India is as old as the origin of man on this earth planet. Our saints were always anxious that man should not interfere with the nature. They always taught to adopt the doctrine/inculcation of non-violence and thus to save wildlife. Hence, when human civilization was in its earliest stage, the relationship between wild animals and humans was harmonious and complementary taking enjoyment and benefiting each other.
Wild animals and man maintained a balance between its necessities and the use of natural resources by him. But in span of time, due to industrial revolution, technological innovations and scientific advancement; the traditional life style got thorough change throughout the world and started to exploit the natural resources with accelerated speed to meet the demands of new materialistic life.
It can be said that the period of Second World War was the most devastating period for wildlife because the soldiers wherever halted exploited and spoiled them. Afterwards, the human population started to increase as explosion since few decades demanding developments in various spheres resulting directly or indirectly ongoing disturbances in the natural resources/ecosystems in India.
The rapid growth of cities, construction of dams, hydroelectric powers, buildings and roads, encroachment and conversion of forest lands for agriculture, mining operation, ruthless killing and hunting of wild animals are the main reasons of direct disturbances in our ecosystems. Such shortsighted activities imbalance the nature creating problems for the survival of wildlife and destruction of habitat of the animals.
A large number of beautiful and important wild animals got extinction which will never reappear on this earth. The extinction of the majestic and fastest creature i.e. Cheetah from India; many other beautiful animals like lion, brow-antlered deer, slow Loris, lesser panda etc. are on the verge of extinction along with several rare and threatened species. Thus, a renewable resource (wildlife) of vital interest is being vanished and depleted.
We know that, from wildlife status point of view, tropical rain forests produce luxuriant vegetation upon which most of the wild animals of the world survive. But due to destruction of these forests; wildlife lost its habitat, deteriorated and many species became endangered. India is a vast tropical country and naturally it has a great variety of flora and fauna.
The geographical variations and distinctions ranging from rain forests of Assam to the snows of the Himalaya and the deserts of Rajasthan, from deciduous forests of Central Highlands to the mangrove swarms of Sunderbans, have their own typical and specific faunal coverage.
These floral and faunal varieties have played and also playing key role in the development of human culture and civilization. In the earliest stage, wildlife was a source of food, cloth, tool, religious belief etc. and at that time more or less equilibrium was maintained between man and the wild creatures.
With the development of agriculture; some species were domesticated for the purpose, others were hunted for their meat, horns, skins etc. Under the advancement of human civilization, industrialization and modernization, his-needs increased more and more.
Modern technology started to exploit the various resources of the ecosystem carelessly and ceaselessly, without having the idea of its devastating consequences. Thus, the relationship and interaction between man and wildlife began to change with great speed resulting deterioration in the quality of the environment/ecosystems.
Wildlife in India has passed through three phases, viz. mythological phase, exploitation phase and conservation phase.
(i) Mythological Phase:
It was the first phase in which wild animals were getting priority of protection through the religious myth and sentiment. There are many stories and instances in this regard. King Pandu in the Mahabharata was cursed by the hind deer for shooting her stag in mating; Rama was helped by Hanuman against Ravana, the flying of deer hunted by Kalidas to the safety of the rishi’s ashram, the eight celestial points of the compass being supposed to be guarded by Indira’s elephant, lion is one of the many incarnations of God Vishnu, the tiger has place being mentioned in the later Vedic texts, the mangoose noticed in the Mahabharata as a teacher of wisdom to King Yudhistira, the deer is always associated with God Brahma and the constant companion of God Mahadeva, the wild boar is referred to as the “Boar of Heaven”.
Some thirty different mammals are mentioned by name in the samhitas (the four principal Vedas). It is of much interest for the world to know that the earliest measures taken for the protection and conservation of animals come from India. All these protective measures have secured safety for wildlife in the Indian thoughts.
Kautilya’s “Arthshastra” refers to the Abhayaranya or Forest Sanctuary where animals could roam about without any fear. The first approach in changing direction is found at the time of Emperor Ashoka because in his Fifth Pillar Edict of 3rd Century B.C. we find the first laws to protect fish, birds and forests strictly and the mammals like bats, monkeys, rhinoceros, porcupines, tree squirrels, barasinga stags, brahmini bulls and all four- footed animals were not utilized or eaten. There was also provision of punishment to the guilty persons as per the law.
(ii) Exploitation Phase:
After mythological phase, the age of exploitation entered in which the wildlife experienced ever- increasing pressure. The Moghuls were great hunters of animals and birds though having keen interested in nature and their concept of management was majorly the game. In the British period, hunting was going on for the pleasure of kings and princes as a tradition.
This era of exploitation continued with increasing intensity of India’s population and more forest land was cleared for cultivation. We had the maximum development and expansion of man’s needs at the expense of wildlife and its habitat following “grow-more-food” campaign.
Even the early years of independence shows no lessening of the pressure on the wildlife rather increased to provide the landless with land and to make India self-sufficient in cereals removing food-problem.
Hence, it is clear that there was an abundance of wildlife in India before British rule in settled and balanced condition. The depletion started from about the middle of the 19th century with the increase in the number of sporting weapons and development of rifles in 1840 and 1860.
The early British army officers, tea planters and civil servants were the main hunters and exploiters. The Second World War was the most dangerous period for the harassment of wild animals by the soldiers as well as the ruling kings and princes.
(iii) Conservation Phase:
The third and the most vital phase of India’s wild animals have come with the general renaissance since the attainment of independence. It is a period of conservation and propagation of wildlife following the world movement for husbanding its natural resources judiciously and scientifically.
It was realized that man must keep balanced relationship with the national heritage to achieve the natural resources in perpetuity. For the purpose, educations among the people of the world in this direction were also enlightened.
Jean-Paul Harroy, Secretary- General of the International Union for Conservation of Nature & Natural Resources (IUCN) has put it “the concept of inter-relations is particularly relevant in the observation of biological equilibrium for the naturalist, especially if we wish to interfere in such delicate balances, must be imbued with the idea that all phenomena are actually one phenomenon and that an abrupt change in of the factors in play can only have profound repercussion on the complex whole, even if he has not been able to anticipate the repercussions in his imaginations.”
The wildlife conservation movement in India may be summarized as such:-
(a) First efforts was taken by BNHS (Bombay Natural History Society) resulted as Wild Birds and Animals Protection Act, 1897.
(b) The 1935 Movement – Punjab gave the lead making separate Game Warden, Fauna Committees in Districts etc.
(c) Prewar Period-Government of India’s Conference in Delhi 1935, Wildlife Convention to be signed by all states.
Formation of Hailey National Park in Uttaranchal; Jim Corbett and Hasan Abid Jaffry’s Association for the preservation of Wildlife in Uttaranchal; Planters’ shooting and fishing clubs in Bengal and South India.
(d) The war period – Destruction of Wildlife by the armies stationed in India.
(e) Postwar Period – The 1951 Conference in Delhi, decision to give wildlife a place in India’s new National Forest Policy of 1951.
(f) Post independence Period-The Indian Board for Wildlife (1952), Government appointed board for advisory purposes. The Wildlife Preservation Society of India (1958), for publicity and propaganda and as a “Watch-dog” on behalf of wildlife.
Wild Life (Protection) Act was framed in 1972 and subsequently being amended time to time.
In Indian condition, any management plan for its wildlife must take into account the prevailing political and economic climate, which is mainly governed by the marginal status of agriculture in the country. Therefore, the idea of wildlife as a crop should undoubtedly find a place in forest management in India.
The problem behind it in the country is to save the fauna from disappearing or being reduced to the point of “no-return” while at the same time ensuring to the cultivator adequate protection from crop damage and carnivorous animals. Since wildlife is an integral part of the land and, hence, must share in the various forms of land-utilization.
In this way, wildlife also demands place in agricultural tracts under land-use planning concept, though this aspect poses itself in our managed areas i.e. the reserved and protected forests.
In India, the main impact on wildlife is on the cultivated and grazing lands where the existing contradictions must be resolved because today in the country it appears to be a major clash between wildlife-use and human-use of the land for cultivation.
We know that animal’s life depends directly or indirectly on plant life for its continued existence and the studies of such interdependence involves study of botany, zoology and animal ecology. Wildlife management is thus concerned with laws and their enforcement and is related with public administration.
Further, it can be said that as an applied animal science, wildlife management is a form of practical or applied zoology and the relationship which wildlife management relates with zoology is similar to that which forestry has with botany. Wildlife ecology has the same relation to wildlife management that silvics has with silviculture.
The dynamic form of wildlife management, known as environmental manipulation, defines as the improvement of the environment based on biological principles which requires sufficient knowledge and research in the concerned field. It is based on the principle that favourable conditions for wildlife can be created by artificial operations of a dynamic nature applying wildlife management techniques.
Though, it is essential that the cultivator should have proper liberty to defend his property from wild animals, it is equally essential that there should be certain areas or reserves where the shooting of wild animals is regulated and where the laws for their protection are rigidly enforced.
Of course, the creation of such reserve or national park will support in bringing the best status to the wild animals. It is essential to draw the attention of the people of the country in the direction of the magnificent heritage, gifted by nature, to realize the necessity for preserving and conserving them for their own benefit as well as for the coming generations.
To fulfill the mission, education will play vital role in bringing better position than what we are at present. Hence, it is needed to create such public opinion in our country on the subject of wildlife protection because today such opinion is not popularized and hardly exists in some quarters that are also not so active due to lack of proper interest and sufficient teaching.
However, the condition may be said to be improving on account of the growing awareness among the population world over. Now-a-days, the status of wildlife in different parts of the world is different depending upon the socio-economic conditions of societies of the different nations.
The developing countries including India, who have just emerged from the colonial rule, are facing with the vital problems of poverty, illiteracy and over-population. In majority of the Asian countries, the status of wildlife is not satisfactory. In India; condition is unsatisfactory, no doubt, but steps are being taken in progressive direction to preserve, conserve and propagate whatever we have.
The success depends upon the sound socio-economic condition, education, literacy, population- control and awareness towards nature and its benefits.
It is interesting to know that how we have gradually adopted development towards the protection of wildlife. At the turn of the twentieth century (British Period), people were having the idea that wildlife was inexhaustible and therefore had pride in boasting the number of trophies secured.
But afterwards, British rulers took attention realizing the importance of conservation of wildlife and enforced various Acts like the Rhino Protection Act, the Elephant Protection Act, the Arms Act etc. from time to time to save them and other wild animals from ruthless killings.
But the history of the modern wildlife movement really starts from the International Conference for the Protection of Nature held at Paris in 1931 which led to the formation of International Union for the Conservation of Nature & Natural Resources (IUCN).
However, in India, the first concrete step towards wildlife conservation was taken soon after independence in 1952 with the setting up of Central Board for Wildlife which was subsequently renamed the Indian Board for Wildlife (IBWL). Soon most of the states also followed it up.
But in spite of the formation of these boards much could not be achieved; as those concerned with conservation, worked in isolation and being far from the mainstream of planning process. To restrict and regulate the thriving global trade of endangered species, India became a party to the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) in 1976.
In recent years many of the International bodies like International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), Worldwide Fund for Nature (WWF) and International Council for Bird Preservation (ICBP) etc. have come up for the purpose of safeguarding, conservation, management and creation of awareness, and India is a member of all these bodies. Apart from these, many nongovernmental organizations are also busy in this mission and imparting their valuable roles.
Now, the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972 is the primary legal document to control the wildlife all over the country. The most important contribution of this Act is the controlling of hunting of wild animals and guiding formation of national parks and sanctuaries.
The wildlife conservation efforts got a tremendous boost through the provision of this Act. Many rare and endangered species were saved from extinction as well as trade in wild animals was brought under strict control and watch.
The Act has been amended in 1991 through which there is now total banned on hunting of wild animals in our country. In addition, many projects like lion project, tiger project, crocodile breeding project, elephant project etc. have been set up to conserve and propagate nicely the threatened wild species.
For effective conservation of wildlife, three basic needs such as adequate food and water, place of refuge, and place to breed in safety should be fulfilled.
To achieve this, the following measures are in practice:
(i) Reserved forests, national parks and sanctuaries are left unexploited; where total un-exploitation is not possible, the cutting operation of the forests is done in limited blocks at a time.
(ii) Crowing of a single variety of plant is discouraged as far as possible; instead mixed vegetation is encouraged.
(iii) Natural opening of the forests, waterholes and riversides are guarded against poachers.
(iv) Controlled-burning of grassland, to increase forage and to preserve organic materials in the soil, is done in blocks with un-burnt area in between.
(v) Provisions for dust-baths and artificial salt-licks are made in the forests for maintaining the normal health of the animals.
(vi) Grazing of-domestic livestock are dangerous to wild animals, as the latter can never compete successfully with domestic stock. Moreover, the domestic stock may be responsible for transmitting several contagious diseases. Hence, grazing by domestic stock in protected areas is avoided as far as possible.
(vii) Cultivation near the sanctuaries is also avoided to prevent ecological hazards due to pesticides.
(viii) Scientific studies by qualified personnel on threatened species of animals are encouraged in order to assess and improve their status, even by breeding them in captivity and rehabilitating them in suitable habitats.
Several such measures have been undertaken and are operative but many more are needed to check the decline of wildlife and to create conditions in which it can flourish with its diversity in natural habitats.
But nothing would be fruitful without the educational and publicity programmes for a change in the human outlook, especially in the new generations who are the builders of future society and custodians of the nature. There is a general lack of knowledge in the field of conservation of nature and the values and benefits of wildlife in our country. Nature has been treated as a milch cow.
Anything useful to man is exploited indiscriminately and inevitably leading to its depletion, sometimes beyond redemption. In true sense, the word “ecology” remained in the dictionary and as a fashion in scientific circles for several decades and could not find place in modern development. Actually, economy should be mitigated by ecology to halt such declining trend.
To sum-up, the only permanent solution to the problems of protection of wildlife, which is a part of the macro-problem of protection of biosphere and its component ecosystems, lies in proper understanding of the living world and in the reorientation of the human outlook in proper and progressive direction.
3. Essay on the Need of Wildlife Management/Conservation:
The life on the earth is a delicate balance of nature. Plants convert carbon dioxide of the air and water into organic matter with the help of chloroplasts in the presence of sunlight. Herbivores derive their energy from the plants and the carnivores in their turn from the herbivores.
There are also organisms called decomposers which release the energy back to nature, thus completing the cycle. We can, thus, see that producers, consumers and decomposers form food-chains. The various foods-chains and cycles constitute the life-support-systems essential for the survival of the living world.
Any major alteration in any one of these, results serious disturbance in the balance of nature leading to annihilation and may threaten the very existence of man himself on this planet.
Hence, to sustain life, renewability of the resources and life- support-systems should be maintained for endless duration, which in turn, demands an understanding of the ability of the species to adopt themselves to the changing environment and to integrate these considerations in the development of any planning process. This, in essence, is the crux of wildlife conservation.
In ancient years, the wildlife in India were found sufficiently; but due to enormous growth in human population, deforestation started for converting forest land into agricultural purposes and subsequently the habitat of wildlife started shrinking and shrinking and their population depleted and being depleting. The period of Second World War was the most devastating period for wildlife as the wildlife were killed mercilessly wherever the militaries got shelter.
Following are the main reasons causing depletion in wildlife population:-
(i) Conversion of forests into agricultural fields.
(ii) In ancient ages, hunting was done wantonly, recklessly, mercilessly and unscientifically.
(iii) Creation of forest roads as well as allowing there the hunters with their automobiles.
(iv) Use of firearms in hunting and hunting were not done selflessly.
(v) Increase in livestock, grazing by them in forest areas resulting loss in food and shelter of wild animals as well as infection of diseases.
(vi) Establishment of industries in forest areas, querying of mines etc.
(vii) Pollution of environment, rivers, water reservoirs and ocean by insecticides, polluted gas and water from industries as byproducts.
(viii) Use of insecticides on large scale in agricultural fields.
(ix) Misuse of licensed firearms.
(x) Lighting of fire by the local people inside the forest.
These factors not only depleted the number of wildlife but some became extinct, some are threatened and some are on the verge of extinction. Their number has come to such a stage that the benefits meeting by them is now-a-days negligible.
Hence, Wildlife Management is the techniques related to wildlife-conservation itself through which the wild animals can be propagated as the natural renewable resource on the earth. Therefore, before choosing the management- techniques, it is essential to keep in mind the prime aims and objectives of the management as well as the target species.
The planning of Wildlife Management work may be classified into the following four steps:-
(a) Wildlife Census:
First of all, it is necessary to find out the present status of the wild animals in the particular habitat. To access the number of each and every species (population) available in the habitat is very important. This is done through the census of the area (habitat). It is impossible to decide the management-technic/techniques to be applied in the habitat without such knowledge.
(b) Measurement of Productivity:
The productivity of the species is determined and then compared to its standard productivity to find out the present situation as whether its productivity is normal, below or above the level.
For the purpose; nasality-rate, mortality-rate, environmental-resistance, interrelationship between prey and predator, carrying-capacity, hunting and poaching, intra and interspecific behavioural aspect, available quantity of food, water and shelter, availability of main and buffer food-species, decimating factors, etc. are thoroughly studied to access the present condition of productivity of the species concerned.
If the productivity of species is found below the standard productivity, the respective decimating factor is to be found out due to which such condition has come and its control-measure is to be applied to bring the productivity at the standard level.
Such controlling measures are generally habitat- improvement, enhancement of carrying-capacity of the habitat, to increase nasality of the species, to minimize decimating factors of the habitat etc. Thus, measurement of productivity of the species and its comparison with standard is helpful in applying proper management technique.
(c) Diagnosis of Control Measures:
From management point of view, it is very necessary to access the factor/factors which is hampering in the growth of population of the species such as decimating factors or the scarcity of food, water and shelter.
Simultaneously, to get its remedy by searching its controlling measure/measures and its application is very important so that the population may reach to the desired level. The diagnosis of the control- measure and its application gives progressive result to go in the forward direction in the field of wildlife management.
Treatment means the application of the controlling- measure/measures to overcome the problem of the limiting factor/ factors after its diagnosis. Such factors may be decimating factors like diseases, predators etc. or the scarcity of the basic needs like foods, water or shelter. Hence, diagnosis of the damaging factor and application/treatment of its control-measure is the important tool in the aspect of wildlife management.
4. Essay on the Aims of Wildlife Management:
The aims and objectives of wildlife management as such will vary from locality to locality, and probably from decade to decade or time to time. The needs of wildlife and the possibility of a successful restoration programme determine the local specific objectives.
However, in general, the objectives can be described under the following heads:
(i) Preservation of Species:
At places, where a sharp decline of a certain species has been observed, this becomes the prime objective. It has been commented that “Man can easily destroy but cannot create any new species, therefore, he should be reluctant to destroy that which he cannot possibly restore no matter how desperate the need be.” The various special projects like Project Tiger, Project Hangul etc. are based on these objectives. In such a case, all the management efforts are focused on one species or a set of species to be preserved.
(ii) Maintenance of Population of Useful Species:
In recent years, the major wildlife management tasks are based on the maintenance of populations of useful species. This forms a wholistic approach in which care to preserve a faunal complex is taken. The obnoxious animals/vermins are exterminated to facilitate the population-growth of useful species. Management of various National Parks and Sanctuaries are based on this objective.
(iii) Stabilizing of Decreasing Population of Certain Species:
Since the earliest successful domestication of animals, man has combated the predators which preyed on his flocks and herds. Likewise, crude attempts at cultivating crops brought him into direct conflict with grazing and fruit-eating wild animals. So, man has always attempted to the best of his ability to decrease local populations of “destructive or harmful species”.
Such age-old human manipulations have resulted into an imbalance of various populations in wild community. So under this objective, the efforts are directed towards stabilizing the affected populations to bring a balanced situation in the community of wildlife.
(iv) Limiting Utilization of Annual Productive Capacity:
Perhaps this is the most difficult objective to achieve and in fact in our country this has no-where been adopted. This actually regulates the annual revenue from the various wildlife. This involves management of populations in a way to obtain an annual sustained production. The examples are Commercial Farming of deer and fishes and other animals.
(v) Conservation of Biodiversity:
To conserve natural biodiversity; maintenance of vast, healthy and productive wildlife population, as far as possible, is essential so that genetic resources may remain protected.
(vi) Maintenance of Habitat:
To cognize wildlife and its habitat so that both may fulfill their interdependency and complement each other reaching at peak position (climax).
(vii) Strengthening Human-Life:
To enhance the richness and quality of human-life so that man may get happy, healthy and prosperous life.
5. Essay on Wildlife Management Plan:
To achieve the above objective, a Wildlife Management Plan is prepared. When the management of a wildlife species of an area is to be done; first of all, a plan as to be prepared in such a way that the basic information’s regarding the relations of all the three components (wildlife population, habitat and people) may be obtained.
The knowledge of their present status (situation) may be acknowledged as well as the studies on the causes of that situation should be carried out. On this basis, all the three components may be manipulated in suitable way so that they may be developed in progressive direction.
Generally, the Wildlife Management Plan is dealt in the following steps:
Before preparing any plan, there is necessity to gather some basic information and records for that particular project. Collection of such information’s is called Inventory.
In case of the inventory of wildlife-population; the information regarding names of the available different types of wild animal species in the related area, their distribution and dispersion in that area, etc. are collected.
In case of habitat inventory; the information’s like availability of different plant species in that area, their distribution, condition and position in plant succession, the suitable and preferred palatable plant species as food for wild animals among the whole available vegetation’s, the quantity of food obtained from them during different seasons, availability of water in the area, the quality of plant species from shelter point of view, etc. are collected. These works are time consuming and not so easy and require experts in the field of forestry, zoology and botany to conduct the same.
In case of people’s inventory; the survey and analysis of human population of that area as well as neighbouring zone is conducted. And then they are categorized such as the people who have interest in wildlife and its conservation, those who are neutral having neither interest in conservation nor harming them, those who are harming the wildlife, area of the offence covered by such people and so on.
Through census, the statistical/mathematical information’s of the three components (wildlife population, its habitat, and the related people) and their subtypes are collected.
(a) For wildlife-population; the information’s like the number of each faunal species, their density, age-ratio, sex-ratio, species-ratio, birth-rate, mortality, survival-records etc. are collected.
(b) For habitat; the information’s like the number of different floral species and their areas, the number of different floral species providing food and shelter, their interspersion, and degree of juxtaposition of the different plants are collected.
(c) In case of related people; the number of their three categories (friends, neutral and enemies), their classification from social and economic point of view, and their age-classes etc. information’s are collected.
(iii) Revenue Procurement:
To fetch revenue from wildlife-population; the number of the wild animal species are estimated and allowed to hunt per year or per season, if it is found surplus than the renewal capacity/stock of the area.
In case of habitat; the revenue obtained from plants are not counted rather the percentage is estimated by comparing the quantity of food and shelter to be obtained by the whole available species in the total habitat, with that area of the habitat in which sufficient quantity of food and shelter are available.
In case of related people; the revenue obtained by legal economy from fauna, benefits related to zoological science, benefits from entertainment and opportunity of employment etc. are estimated. But simultaneously, the quantity of loss made by man and cattle to the wild animals as well as losses done by wild animals to the human-being and cattle are also estimated.
In case of wildlife-population, the present situation (status) of the population is diagnosed; if it is not optimum, the reasons or factors responsible for that are assessed so that it may be removed. For example; the low turn-over rate may be due to the reason of irregular sex-ratio or, due to more percentage of mortality in the young ones.
In such cases, the factor/fractors responsible may be found out to rectify sex-ratio or to minimize the percentage of mortality in the young-ones.
Diagnosis for habitat is to find out the causes of unsuitability, or, its effects. These are assessed and limiting-factors are sorted out so that they may be removed.
In case of related people; the category causing harms to the wild animals is diagnosed and reasons of such behaviour are found out so that it may be pacified and rectified.
(v) Control and Remedies:
Control and remedies means the actions to be taken to control or rectify the harmful or damaging factors which are found through the diagnosis.
In case of wildlife-population; the objective of control and remedies is to enhance the population on the basis of the knowledge of biology of the wild animals. To control and to make necessary remedies, the factors hindering turn-over rate of the animals are taken into considerations.
For example; if mortality in young-ones is due to certain disease, the treatment is done for that disease; if turn-over rate is low due to unfavourable sex-ratio, the sex-ratio should be managed properly. Hence, the objective is to bring the wildlife-population at the optimum- level.
There should be management of sufficient space in the habitat for the each individual of the related species. There should be trials; to make favourable sex-ratio and age-ratio of the species to enhance nasality, and removal of unproductive animals from wildlife population. These methods will help or benefit only those wildlife populations which are out of danger or have no great loss.
But the population which has become endangered and is on the verge of extinction, there should be special devices for it to be used such as production of young-ones through artificial reproduction to get appropriate sex-ratio as well as transfer or introduction of youngs in protected and favourable habitat; if animals are in very limited area, they should be translocated/introduced in new area.
The healthy and optimum condition of wildlife population depends upon the habitat. Hence, before the manipulation of the wildlife population, there should be management or manipulation of the habitat.
For example; there should be management for tasty and nutritious food and sufficient water and shelter for the animals, juxtaposition and interspersion for such essential things should also be improved. Food, shelter and water should be managed to be available in the entire area and the management/arrangement should be in such a way that such essential requirements may meet in pinch-period in sufficient quantity.
In case of people’s relation, to bring changes in their motives of harmful activities to the wild animals, is to control with remedial measures. Therefore, the different categories of the people (friend, neutral and enemy of the wildlife) have to be managed.
For example, the category like friend of wildlife generally keep their interest limited to themselves and hence such people should be encouraged and motivated for active participation in the protection of wildlife; likewise to create awareness towards love and sense of protection in neutral category of the people, and to change the mentality among the enemy category of the people, they should be persuaded and motivated in such a way that such persons may be converted as wildlife-protector.
For such work, the benefit may be taken by the research done in social sciences by applying and adopting them wherever it is appropriate and necessary.
Problems in Wildlife Management Plan:
The shrinkage and degradation of forest, and non-forest wildlife habitats as well as serious decline in the status of wild animals; conservation efforts started gathering momentum in the country in the early ’70s. The National Wildlife Action Plan was drawn up against this background.
It is a document setting out an agenda of countrywide activities in the field of wildlife-conservation, which was released by the late Prime. Minister Indira Gandhi in November, 1983.
The Action Plan covers a period of 5 years and contains ten sections, each representing a major area of activity in the wildlife field which are as follows:
1. Establishment of a Representative Network of Protected Areas (PA = Sanctuary & National Park):
This section of the Action Plan is concerned with the necessity and requirement ensuring that the country has adequate representative network of the protected-areas (national parks and sanctuaries) with respect to biological-diversity and geographical-distribution.
It provides for the production of an agreed biogeographic classification as background to a review of all existing protected areas and recommendation for the establishment of new ones to fill the existing gaps. As a result, all biogeographic zones would be represented in an enlarged protected area network. Work on these priority, project is in well progress.
2. Management of Protected Areas and Habitat Restoration:
This section improves the management of protected-areas and ensures its compatibility with the needs of local people. Under the provision, the Project for the restoration of degraded habitats within protected-areas as well as provision for the development of a fully professional cadre of wildlife managers has come into light.
The identification of special areas for Eco-Development, where conservation oriented community-development programmes are undertaken, remains an urgent need in order to ensure the support and involvement of local people in the overall management of wildlife areas.
3. Wildlife Protection in Multiple-Use Areas:
This section aims to provide means for the protection of wildlife in multiple-use areas (such as production forests and pasture lands) so as to preserve viable “corridors” linking up protected areas and ensuring genetic continuity between them. These will include “migration-routes” of species such as elephants, and “diffusion-corridors” for tigers in areas where habitat destruction is bringing them into conflict with man. There has been little specific progress in this area of the plan.
4. Rehabilitation of Endangered & Threatened Species:
This section is concerned with the rehabilitation of endangered and threatened species. After conducting field surveys and establishing appropriate criteria, a graduated list of threatened Indian fauna and flora is to be drawn. For each species, specific rehabilitation measures are to be recommended to the relevant state authorities for taking actions.
5. Captive Breeding Programmes:
Presently, the design of time bound captive-breeding/release projects is receiving attention for species already identified for rehabilitation. However, the full list of species showing degree of threat and a recommended recovery programme awaits completion. Field surveys of critical areas and species are being undertaken under this section.
6. Wildlife Education and Interpretation:
This section of Action Plan deals with the wildlife education and interpretation aiming wider public appreciation of the importance of wildlife for human betterment. Priority projects include the setting up of a division of wildlife education/interpretation at Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun and model interpretation units at key national parks and zoos.
Some progress has been made at places such as Kanha National Park and Delhi Zoo with interpretation. A new model Visitor Centre is designed for Corbett National Park. Central Government financial support for non-governmental organisations for producing wildlife educational materials is visualized in the plan. It would greatly speed up progress in this important aspect of conservation of wildlife.
7. Research and Monitoring:
This section deals the vital area of research and monitoring in order to provide a scientific basis for improved management of wildlife. Involvement and implementation of universities in wildlife teaching and research would increase the net capacity for good wildlife research in the country. A national list of research priorities in wildlife covering critical habitat types is still awaited but is in progress.
8. Domestic Legislation & International Conventions:
This section highlights the importance of statutory provisions and its updation for wild Life conservation. Amendment of 1972 Wild Life (Protection) Act in 1991 and ongoing revision of legislation of CITES in India illustrate the action taken under this section of the Plan.
9. National Conservation Strategy:
This section shows the importance of International treaties (agreements) as well as the need for a National Conservation Strategy for India from wildlife conservation point of view.
10. Collaboration with Voluntary Bodies:
This section of the Plan represents an important aspect which is easily overlooked viz. the enlisting of support from and collaboration with voluntary bodies involved in wildlife conservation. There is still an urgent need to define the role of such organisations and encourage their participation in conservation efforts. In certain fields, nongovernmental organisations can make rapid progress while the government machinery finds it tough only.
In each section of the Plan, an objective is concisely defined followed by a brief statement of the action required for its fulfillment. The section is then broken down into a series of priority projects which indicate the exact tasks to be performed, the timing and duration of the project and precisely who will be responsible for its implementation. Priority and sequence of the project components are also indicated.
While the overall initiative for implementation of the Action Plan rests with the Department of Environment, Forests and Wildlife at the centre; a number of government as well as non-government agencies are involved.
In particular, the Zoological Survey of India, Botanical Survey of India, Wildlife Institute of India and state Forest Departments are given responsibilities for parts of the Plan. In many cases, the Plan provides for the setting of a special working group for the achievement of a particular task.
In many sections of the Plan, the recommended mode of achieving objectives requires examination, particularly in cases where little progress has been possible to date. All sections without exception need a revision of their time schedule to take account of delay in commencing the projects or a revised perception of the duration required to adequately achieve the objectives.
Ongoing adjustment should be an accepted facet of any good plan of this kind, if it is to avoid becoming an outdated document of only limited relevance to changing conditions in the country.
Hence, it is clear that the National Wildlife Action Plan has provided a vital framework for conservation and management of India’s diverse wildlife resources and a yardstick by which progress can be measured. As such, the Plan is a document which deserves even wider attention among foresters and wild-lifers.
6. Essay on the Relationship between the Components of Wildlife Management:
According to the definition of Wildlife Management; to obtain specific human-goal, from the wildlife-resources, is necessary. There should be needs/manipulations in structure, dynamics and relations of the three major components viz. wildlife population, its habitat and the related people.
This may be specified as-follows:
(i) The real crux of the wildlife management is the full determination of its goal. It is obtained by observing the situations. Some goals are chosen in the management and to achieve them, different kinds of determinations are fixed.
For example, if the number of males in a population is excess in comparison to the appropriate male-female ratio, then the goal will be to make this ratio suitable; and, therefore, it is to be determined that whether the excess males have to be introduced elsewhere or they have to be hunted to minimize its number.
Likewise, if there are excess bushes and less grasses in the habitat; it is to be determined that whether the bushes should be destroyed through weedicides or through the controlled burning to enhance the growth of the grass.
It means, first of all, some objectives are fixed for specific human-goals for indefinite period to get through wildlife-resources; and then to achieve these objectives, determination is fixed in planning of the action.
(ii) The first important component of the wildlife management is wildlife-population. Actually management is done to the wildlife- population to get benefits from them to the human society for indefinite period. If wildlife-population is to be made eternal, it is very essential that wildlife manager is having sufficient knowledge of biology and ecology of the species to be managed.
In absence of such knowledge; making of suitable and effective wildlife structure, dynamics etc. are impossible. In biology; the knowledge is gained for that particular species regarding its morphology, physiology, life-cycle and breeding, causes of mortality, basic requirements to carry the life, present status of the animal number, age and sex ratios and so on.
In ecology; the studies on effects of the environment and results of its impacts upon the nature of the individuals of that particular species are done. In real sense, wildlife management is an ecological science in which there is analysis and studies of the relations and effects of a particular species with its environment (environment includes the basic resources like atmosphere, soil, water etc. and its users like whole plant and animal kingdoms).
(iii) The second important component of the wildlife management is its habitat. The basic requirements of wildlife (food, water, space and shelter) are met through the habitat in which they live. Hence, if the wildlife-population is to be made beneficial for indefinite period for human life, the habitat has to be managed in such a way that it can provide them and fulfill their all the necessities regularly and smoothly. For this, the knowledge of forestry, zoology and botany is desirable.
(iv) The last third but very important component of wildlife management is the related people. But from manipulation point of view, this is the most difficult component. The man is the main source who had and has been applying their skills and interfering the nature.
Nature is full of miracles; it always tries as well as keeps its all the components in balance, its working are peculiar which is beyond the apprehension of the man till now. But the men are interfering with the nature’s job and try to govern it as per their own little skills. Its results become very disastrous and the man himself invites problems causing annihilation of natural- balance.
Therefore, an important work of wildlife manager is to manipulate/manage the skilled people. On the basis of the knowledge of biology and ecology of the wildlife, the condition of wildlife-population may be brought to suitable and favourable.
Its habitat may be manipulated suitably and, as a result, the situation and condition of the wildlife – population may be created suitable, feasible and favourable. But unless and until there is people’s manipulation/management, all other managements/manipulations will be in vain.
7. Essay on the Problems in Wildlife Conservation & Management:
Forests are unlocked property, it is vast and open and hence vulnerable for theft, hunting, killing, poaching and so on.
Therefore, before going towards conservation or management of wildlife, it is essential to think over the problems facing in this direction which are mainly as follows:-
(i) Vast Habitat and Distribution:
Wildlife habitat and its distribution are not restricted only inside the forest but also encompasses the neighbouring rivers, water-reservoirs, agricultural fields and, hence, its conservation becomes difficult due to such vast areas.
(ii) Economical Problem:
Due to vast habitat area, its conservation/management requires heavy fund.
(iii) Enormous Growth in Human Population:
It results-the conversion of forest into agricultural-fields, hunting of wild animals for foods etc.
(iv) Enhancement in Cattle/Livestock Population:
Increment in human population and livestock goes side by side which causes adverse effect on wild population.
(v) Short-Sightedness of Human-Beings:
Pollutants as insecticides, byproducts of industries in the form of gases and water pollutants, query of mines etc. inside forest and such other activities result or resulting habitat shrinkage as well as death and diseases among the wild animals.
(vi) Selfishness of Human-Beings:
Hunting, poaching, killing, smuggling etc. of wild animals have been hampering and suffering them a lot.
(vii) Unawareness among General Masses:
Majority of people are poor and illiterate. They are unaware about the importance of wildlife and its role in ecosystem. They are not fully aware that wildlife is very much essential for eco-balance and is ultimately essential for human-life.
(viii) Lack of Scientific Knowledge Related to Wildlife:
Generally people or majorities of the people do not understand about ecological and scientific value of wildlife and, hence, they do not hesitate to hunt or kill them. They are unable to apprehend about loss made related to wildlife and its consequences. It is essential to keep knowledge about the structure, dynamics and its relations with wildlife population, its habitat and the people.